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Renaissance and Medieval history questions.

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Judah Sussman AP European History 9/28/03 Renaissance and Medieval history questions The Renaissance is a term used to indicate that time period which denotes the transition from the period of history which is called the Middle Ages to that of the modern era. The Renaissance also implies the changes in the intellectual and moral attitude by which the transition was characterized. The Renaissance or "rebirth" brought back the intellectual, artistic, and literary fields that once flourished during the days of Antiquity. Also during the Renaissance the Church as well as Empires, which were the main fabrics of the middle ages began to unwind. The inventions of the printing press and gun powder also caused major changes by bringing about higher literary rates in the vernacular and the rise of Nationalities. Question # 1 The most decisive and the most traumatic ear in the entire history of the Church was the period from the middle of the 14th century to the middle of the 16th century. ...read more.


In 1517, Pope Leo X began to sell indulgences in order to raise funds for the construction of St. Peter's Basilica. The reaction against this practice ignited the Reformation. In essence, the church's decline came both internally as well as externally. As it was becoming self evident that the church was becoming more and more corrupt and the clergy continued to perform practices which took away from the individuals as well as corrupting the individuals soul many reformers started to attack the church. Finally, the development of nationalism and the growing reluctance of kings to obey any opposing institution, including the church, were evident in the encounters between Boniface VIII and the French ruler Philip IV. Question # 2 Humanism is the term generally applied to the predominant social philosophy and intellectual and literary currents of the period from 1400 to 1650. The return to favor of the pagan classics stimulated the philosophy of secularism including the appreciation of worldly pleasures, and above all, intensified the assertion of personal independence and individual expression. ...read more.


Bruni, in particular, created a new definition of Florence's republican traditions, and defended the city in panegyrics and letters. Ironically, the development of humanist thought in Italy, although often radical, did not lead to radical changes in the Catholic Church despite the fact that the Vatican was to be found in Rome. By contrast, the more conservative Northern Renaissance, especially in Germany directly led to the Protestant Reformation. Luther, no Humanist, still was profoundly influenced by the idea that the individual, not the Church, was the true center of existence. Indeed, all his major ideas including "vocation," "justification by faith" and "the priesthood of all believers" is based on a "modern" reevaluation of the place of the individual in the cosmos. In conclusion, Humanism helped to bring about individualism. It showed that the individual, not the group, matters most and that the world is something of value and not just a road from here to the world to come. It literally gave the "meaning of life" a new meaning which continues to shape the way we see the world we live in and one another. ...read more.

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