• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

What is the cosmological argument?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

What is the cosmological argument? (33) The cosmological argument is a 'posteriori' argument; this means that unlike the ontological argument in derives that God exists from empirical observations of the world and the universe to conclude that there was a first cause behind it. This argument demonstrates that things come into existence because an external object or thing has caused them to, in a succession of event. However, this succession of events cannot go back to the beginning of time, therefore there must have been a necessary being outside of time and place, that brought things into existence and the cosmological argument states that this is God. Aquinas propagated the popular form of the cosmological argument. He developed five ways to prove the existence of God; the first three are used in the cosmological argument. The first way is based in motion. In order words things move due to an applied external force, for example a hand pushes the cue, which moves the snooker ball. According to Aquinas infinite regress does not exist, eventually it comes back to the first cause, God. The motion concept does not only apply to movement from place to place, but movement from quality or quantity, which when an external force is applied changes. ...read more.

Middle

Therefore the universe has to have a first cause which Craig argues is God. Once Craig had established God as creator of the universe he attempted to prove God as personal creator. Craig argues that if the universe has a beginning it was either caused or uncaused, either it was a natural occurrence or a deliberate action of God. Supporters of the Kalam argument argue that it was a deliberate action of God because the rules of nature have existed since the beginning of time, it could not have possibly been the result of a spontaneous event, and it must be because of God. Therefore the cosmological argument tries to prove Gods existence based on the belief that God created the world 'ex-nihilo'. If the universe was created out of nothing, the beginning of time began with the creation of the universe. Therefore there must have been an external personal agent who existed out of time to will the universe into creation. Aquinas, Craig and supporters of the Kalam argument propagate the first cause of the universe was God. What are the problems with the cosmological argument? ...read more.

Conclusion

Kant argued that the idea that something had a first cause could only be applied to the world of the sense experience. It cannot be applied to a world that we know nothing about. Therefore Kant did not accept any conclusion that God caused the world to begin, because as humans we do not possess the question to transcend our experience. If God is a casual being outside of time and space it is impossible for people to know what God created or God himself. The big bang provides a scientific explanation about the beginning of the universe. Scientific explanation has observed that there was a beginning to the universe and it developed an early structure very early in its development. The debate rests upon whether it was the cause of natural or the divine? A random spontaneous event or a deliberate action caused by God. Many philosophers have argued that if there is a first cause there is no evidence to suggest that it is any God let alone the God of classical theism, it could have been anything. The cosmological argument has to many faults for it to alone prove the existence of God. To judge adequately whether God exists one would have to take into account other arguments such as the design argument. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Existence of God section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Existence of God essays

  1. The Cosmological Argument

    Aquinas calls him 'The Uncaused Causer', for he has no origins (causes) yet caused the chain of events that we term 'the Big Bang'. 3. The Third Way - Possibility and Necessity (Contingency). Contingency means, a being that perishes. A necessary being, is a being that doesn't die.

  2. Explain the Ontological argument.

    Things are caused by an external influence in a succession of events, however these events cannot go back to the beginning of time, there must have been a first cause and this was God. The third way identified the contingency of matter in the universe.

  1. A Big Bang Cosmological Argument for God's Nonexistence

    I find it impossible to give up the principle; and with that confession of the intellectual impotence of old age I must leave this topic.4 Motivated by concerns such as Broad's, some of the few nontheists who have been vocal on this subject have gone so far as to deny, without due justification, central tenets of big bang cosmology.

  2. Outline the key features of the Cosmological Argument for the existence of God

    This necessary being was God. Aquinas argued the world was finite with his first argument and rubbished the assumption of infinity; he used the example of fire: when the fire is hot it changes wood from cold to hot, it follows a sequence, so if the world was infinite it would mean it would be

  1. "Modern visions of the Ontological Argument are more successful than early versions"

    Once Anselm's argument had been subjected to so many 17th -18th century criticisms it was left virtually untouched until the 20th century when modern philosophers decided to attempt to create a more plausible version of the ontological argument.

  2. Explain the Ontological argument from Anslem and Gaunillo's objection 9s?

    God's existence outside of our understanding is logically necessary, and prevents the argument from becoming contradictory. Gaunilo's argumentative criticism claims that in the dual existence, with understanding and in reality, for this reason it must exist. For if it does not exist, any lord who really exists will be more excellent than God.

  1. The design argument depends on key assumptions, in particular that the order in the ...

    that they are so formed and adjusted as to produce motion, and that motion so regulated as to point out the hour of the day" William Paley Paley then compared the watch to the universe, he argued like the watch the universe is also a machine that serves order and purpose: vegetation.

  2. Birth Of The Universe

    It seems as if there could be nothing more. Yet beyond this rip, beyond this tear, and beyond this bubble, there are other rips and tears that likewise seem as if ... She blew many bubbles. This tear, this rip, through which She created the space that is your universe, is what we call the Vortex of the Goddess - the Vortex of Sirius.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work