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A solution of dilute sulphuric acid and then calculate the concentration of acid within it. This concentration will be significantly larger than that of the acid within the acid rain but the same technique will be used to obtain the pH for acid rain

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Introduction

Acid rain In this experiment I am going to use the method of titration to analyse a solution of dilute sulphuric acid and then calculate the concentration of acid within it. This concentration will be significantly larger than that of the acid within the acid rain but the same technique will be used to obtain the pH for acid rain samples. From this I will be able to estimate the effect the acid rain has on the environment. Equipment & Chemicals * 250cm3 volumetric flask * 10cm3 pipette * Pipette filler * Burette * 25cm3 pipette * Methyl Orange Indicator * Weighing Boat * Dilute sulphuric acid (acid rain) * Anhydrous sodium carbonate * Weighing scales * Distilled Water * 100cm3 conical flask * White tile * Clamp * Clamp Stand * Glass Funnel * Glass Rod * 100cm3 Beaker * 100cm3 Conical Flask Before I start the experiment I need to know how much anhydrous sodium carbonate I will need. Below shows how I came to the figure of 2.65g: Number of moles of Na2CO3 = Volume x Concentration = 0.25 x 0.1 = 0.025mol Mass = Number of Moles x Molecular Mass = 0.025 x 106 = 2.65g The reason why the concentration is 0.1moldm-3 is because it should reflect the concentration of the sulphuric acid. ...read more.

Middle

If the red colour has gone add more sulphuric acid to the conical flask until the red colour stays. 14. Once it has changed colour repeat the process until you have three repeat titres within 0.1cm3 of each other. I think that my method that I have devised is likely to provide precise and reliable results because it provides the exact values of all the solutions that are needed. The equipment that will be used will also be quite accurate as the intervals between each reading will be quite small. This means that the percentage error will be decreased. It should produce reliable results as the experiment has to be repeated until there are three results that are close to each other. I will wash all of the necessary equipment with distilled water to ensure no residue remains on/in the equipment. I will also rinse all of the necessary equipment with distilled water to ensure that no sodium carbonate remained in the weighing boat and beaker etc. To make sure that the acid's concentration will not decrease I will wash the burette several times with the same molar acid. Risk Assessment Hazard Risk Action To Control Risk Procedure Acid rain (dilute sulphuric acid) ...read more.

Conclusion

This shows that these results should be quite accurate as three readings that are very close to each other is a good indication of what the actual reading should be. The first titre was the hardest to judge whether or not it was pink. This is because for the remaining titres I had a solution to compare the rest of them to so that I could judge whether or not the solution had turned pink. Errors Mass: 2.64�0.005g, therefore the percentage error is Pipette: 25�0.04cm3, therefore the percentage error is Volumetric Flask: 250�0.3 cm3, therefore the percentage error is Burette: 24.88�(0.05x2)cm3. The reason that the error is multiplied by two is because to readings are being made, the initial and end readings. This means that the percentage error is doubled so the percentage error is This means that the total percentage error could be �1.300%. This means the maximum the result could be is 25.203 cm3 and the minimum is 24.557cm3. The percentage error is quite small meaning that I would consider my result to be quite accurate and reliable. It is unlikely to be the maximum or minimum percentage error, as this would have meant that I would have had to make the largest error possible. It was important to calculate these errors in order to see what the result could have actually been. ?? ?? ?? ?? Acid Rain ...read more.

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