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Acid Base Characteristics of Oxides Across the periodic Table

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Introduction

Apparatus: * Pipettes (2) * Tweezers * Spatula (2) * Universal Indicator Paper * Hydrochloric Acid (2M) * Sodium Hydroxide (2M) * Sodium Oxide * Magnesium Oxide * Aluminium Oxide * Silicon Dioxide * Test Tubes (12) * Distilled Water Method: 1. After collecting the required apparatus place the same suitable amount of Sodium Oxide (Na2O) in three different test tubes. 2. In the first test tube add an appropriate amount of distilled water and observe if a reaction occurs. Record these observations. In the solution produced add a small strip of Universal Indicator Paper and record the pH level. 3. In the second test tube add an appropriate amount of Hydrochloric Acid. Observe and record the reaction. 4. In the third test tube add Sodium Hydroxide in an appropriate amount. ...read more.

Middle

Pentoxide Yes 1 Acid Dissolves instantaneously, gives off heat, loud pop, cloudy Sulfur Dioxide Yes 2 Acid Gas in the air Table 3: Reaction Of Oxides With An Acid (Hydrochloric Acid 2M) Oxide Name Reaction Observation Sodium Oxide Yes Foam quite vigorous, fizzled high in tube, dropped and fizzles until all oxide was dissolved Magnesium Oxide Yes Completely dissolved very quickly, gave a thin layer of smoke over the top of the liquid and left small bubbles in liquid Aluminium Oxide No No reaction, cloudy then formed a sediment Silicon Dioxide Yes Fizzled to the top of the test tube, kept on doing this for a small period of time then bubbles in liquid Phosphorus Pentoxide - Fizzles at the start, hard to tell if the water in the acid reacting of the acid. ...read more.

Conclusion

The results in the literature1 show that the nature of the oxides of period 3 elements go from basic to amphoteric to acidic. This agrees with the results obtained in the tests done with distilled water. The other tests of Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Hydroxide however do not show any sort of trend in the data obtained. Improvements to the procedure: * Testing the same ideas on a different period to see if the theories produced are true for all elements. * Also try testing electricity conductivity of each of these oxides and seeing if there is any relationship between the two. * Also to determine trends across a period doing these tests with chlorides of the elements. * Using different types of acids and bases to see which ones give off the proper reaction that suits the literature and clearly shows whether an oxide is acidic or basic. 1 Chemistry for the IB Diploma - Standard and Higher Level, pg 13-14 ...read more.

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