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An experiment to investigate the effects various ions on a soap solution.

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Introduction

An experiment to investigate the effects various ions on a soap solution Method 2cm3 of distilled water was taken. This distilled water was pre-mixed with the concentration of the appropriate ion (e.g. Sodium ion, Magnesium ion, etc.) After this, 30 drops of soap was added to the compound in the distilled water and the resulting solution was viewed to examine whether lather or a scum was formed. If lather was formed then foam would form on the top of the solution. If a scum is formed, then you would see a solid floating in the solution and the water would turn opaque. Variables Independent Variable An independent variable is one which you chose to change and is independent of anything else. ...read more.

Middle

This needs to be controlled because if all of the test tubes have large amounts of soap, then all of the solution will eventually form lather therefore making the results extremely inaccurate and produce many anomalous results. * The concentration and amount of the various compounds used. This, similar to the previous control variable needs to stay the same in all solutions because if it was not the same, there would be more than one independent variable and this means that the experiment would be unfair. * The amount of time and how vigorously the test tube was shaken. If the vigorousness was changed in each experiment then some solutions would form lather faster/slower than others and there would be more than one independent variable making the experiment unfair. ...read more.

Conclusion

Take sodium chloride and calcium chloride as an example. Calcium chloride does not form lather; therefore either the calcium ion or the chloride ion causes hardness. However, sodium chloride does not cause hardness hence the chloride ion does not cause hardness, which means the calcium ion must cause hardness. This method was used to conclude which ions do and do not cause hardness. o Calcium sulphate was not used in this particular experiment because it is insoluble (does not dissolve in water.) However, if calcium sulphate was soluble, it would not form a lather therefore causing hardness in the water. This is because from previous investigation it can be seen that the calcium ions cause hardness. ...read more.

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