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An Investigating To Show How Concentration Affects The Speed Of A Chemical Reaction

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Introduction

Neha Shah - 10EC/10PY An Investigating To Show How Concentration Affects The Speed Of A Chemical Reaction Aim To investigate the effect of concentration of acid, in the reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid and magnesium ribbon. Preliminary Research The rate of a chemical reaction is the measure of how fast the reaction takes place. In a reaction particles must collide and overcome the fixed amount of energy for the reaction to take place. This energy is called the activation energy. The rate of reaction depends on four factors: * Temperature - An increase in temperature produces an increase in rate of reaction. This is because the kinetic energy of particles increases causing them to move faster and result in more collisions. As particles are moving faster, larger proportion of the collisions will exceed the activation energy and so the rate of reaction increases. * Surface Area - If the reactant has a large surface area, there is a greater surface area for collisions to take place resulting in a higher frequency of successful collisions and so causing an increase in the rate of reaction. * Catalyst - A catalyst is a substance, which can alter the rate of a reaction but remains chemically unchanged at the end of the reaction. ...read more.

Middle

Fair Test In order to keep my experiment a fair test I will have to make sure that I keep the following factors the same: - The surface area of the magnesium must be maintained. This will be done by using strips of magnesium of equal length from the same length of magnesium. I will also have to make sure that the gas syringe is correctly connected and that it is placed quickly and tightly enough so that no hydrogen gas escapes. To make sure that all my results are as accurate as possible I will do each experiment three times and then take an average to prevent any anomalous results affecting the end conclusion in a big way. Safety * Wear goggles when handling acid and during when magnesium is reacted with acid. * Clear all spillages. * Avoid any contact with the acid. Results: Ratio of volumes of hydrochloric acid : water in cm� Time taken for 32ml of hydrogen gas to be produced/s Average time taken for 32ml gas to be produced/s 1st Trial 2nd Trial 50:0 45 30 37.5 40:10 75 30 52.5 30:20 90 40 65 20:30 80 70 75 10:40 410 390 400 Other Observations As we decreased the concentration of acid, the time taken for the magnesium strip decreased. ...read more.

Conclusion

This could have the effect of producing more hydrogen gas, as there is now more reactant if the mass were greater. Other than our anomaly, the rest of the results proved to be reliable as they all fit on the best line of fit and so a suitable procedure was used. It enabled us to draw a firm conclusion. Also they were accurate. Using a gas syringe enabled us to see the amount of gas evolved. This was a better method than just recording the time taken for the magnesium to disappear, as this would increase human error. The investigation could be improved in a number of ways. o ensure that no hydrogen gas had escaped into the atmosphere whilst attaching the syringe we could keep the reactants separate whilst setting up the apparatus. We could also improve reliability by repeating the experiments a third time and then finding an average. This would help emphasise consistency of the results. To increase reliability we could have increased the range of concentrations. This would give a better line of best of it and accentuate the trends already shown. We could also investigate other factors like temperature and surface area and see their effects on the rate of reaction. For temperature we could carry out a series of experiments by doing the reactions in water baths of different temperatures. For surface area, the magnesium strips could be broken down into smaller pieces. ...read more.

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