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# An investigation into how concentration effects the reaction between hydrochloric acid and marble chips.

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Introduction

An investigation into how concentration effects the reaction between hydrochloric acid and marble chips Plan As I will be using acid in the experiment I will wear safety goggles during the experiment. Set up the apparatus as shown The experiment I will be: CaCO3 + 2HCl CO2 + CaCl2 + H2O Calcium carbonate + Hydrochloric acid Carbon dioxide + Calcium chloride + Water I will monitor the rate by measuring the speed at which the product (Carbon dioxide) is given off. Preliminary Results I carried out a series of experiments to decipher what size chips, what mass of chips and what volume of solution I should use in order to get the best results from my experiment. I also took the temperature during these experiments to see if there was a sudden drop or increase in the temperature which may affect my results, there only seemed to be a drop or increase of around 1 degree each time so I do not think that there is much to worry about. ...read more.

Middle

seemed to run out of acid so I will not use this, however, the other 2 appear to be relatively the same because both had the same amount of chips to work with and therefore will produce at around the same rate. Prediction A reaction occurs when particles collide. I predict that the higher the concentration of Hydrochloric acid, the faster the rate of reaction will be. I have predicted this because the higher the concentration of Hydrochloric acid means the higher the amount of acid particles there are in the solution and therefore there is a much greater chance of the acid particles colliding with the chips, therefore speeding up the rate of the reaction. Whereas, if the solution was much more dilute, the particles would need to travel a lot further in order to collide with one another, because there wouldn't be as many of them. I also think that if the number of acid particles in the solution in doubled then the rate would double also as there is twice the chance of collision of the particles. ...read more.

Conclusion

This is all shown in the graph, which also states the rates at which the reactions have taken place. Evaluation There were no anomalous results in the experiment. A few points were slightly off of the line of best it but no enough to call them anomalies. The test was as fair as I could have made it given the equipment in school. The chips were weighed to as close to 3g as possible but with only 2 decimal places to work to and no way of splitting the chips a lot of the experiments were one or two grams under/over weight. Also the temperature varied slightly when I did each experiment which could have made a slight error in the results, to resolve this I could have sat the whole experiment in a water bath with a controlled temperature. As a further experiment I think I could have investigated how changes in temperature affect the rate of reaction, whether one or two degrees actually make a lot of difference. I could use a water bath to keep the experiment in and very the temperature of the water in it slightly to see how it affects the rate of reaction. Steph Winterbottom 1 ...read more.

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