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An Investigation to Show How Temperature Affects the Rate of a Chemical Reaction

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Introduction

Claire Weston 11K Chemistry Coursework An Investigation to Show How Temperature Affects the Rate of a Chemical Reaction Background Information A chemical reaction is affected by certain factors that determine the speed and strength of the reaction. These factors are: ? The temperature at which the reaction occurs ? Whether or not a catalyst is present ? The surface area of the reactants (if one of the reactants is solid) ? The concentration of the reactants During a chemical reaction, collisions (impact) between molecules/atoms take place. These collisions cause the chemical bonds within the reactants that 'bind' the molecules together, to break and reform, in different combinations, which form the new molecules of the reaction. Anything that increases the speed/amount of particles (molecules) available will increase the amount of collisions occurring, and therefore speed up the reaction. Likewise, any factor that reduces the number of collisions will slow the reaction. Temperature Increasing the temperature speeds up the rate of a reaction due to the kinetic theory. Graph to Show the Rate of A Reaction Fraction of molecules having a given kinetic energy Activation Energy Kinetic energy In order to react the molecules must collide with a minimum kinetic (moving) energy this is called the activation energy, as shown on the graph. ...read more.

Middle

Apparatus 25cm� measuring cylinder, 250ml beaker, 10cm� measuring cylinder, black pen, white paper, Bunsen burner, thermometer, stop clock, heatproof mat, gauze, metal tongs. Chemicals: 25cm� thiosulphate solution, 25cm� water, 5cm� hydrochloric acid. Detailed Plan 25cm� of thiosulphate solution will be measured using a 25cm� measuring cylinder and then poured into a 250ml beaker. 25cm� of cold tap water will be measured in a clean 25cm�-measuring cylinder and added to the 250ml beaker containing the thiosulphate solution. 5cm� of hydrochloric acid will then be measured using a 10cm�-measuring cylinder. Then, a small black cross will be drawn on a piece of white paper, so that it can clearly be seen. The thiosulphate and cold tap water solution in the 250ml beaker will then be heated by the Bunsen burner, turned to a small, blue flame. It will be heated until it reaches 50�C (the solution must be heated to 5�C below the intended final temperature is reached, to allow for additional increases in temperature once the solution has been removed from the direct heat of the Bunsen burner.) This temperature will be found using the thermometer. The solution will be observed until it reaches the first chosen temperature of 55�C. The exact temperature will be noted. Then, the white paper with the black cross will be placed underneath the thiosulphate and tap water solution in the 250ml beaker, with the aid of metal tongs. ...read more.

Conclusion

As time increases, temperature decreases at the same rate. Evaluation I think that the evidence presented was reliable because it was repeated twice to ensure that anomalies in the results were eliminated and that the average result wasn't skewed. I can assume that these results are correct because I used an average of the results to create a graph, and took my subsequent conclusions from that. I think that the experiment was accurate because the same equipment and chemicals were used for the two repeats. There may have been a slight error in measuring the chemicals using the 25cm� measuring cylinder or the timer not being stopped quick enough due to human error. This however, can be overlooked as if any discrepancies have occurred; they haven't affected the final results to a relevant degree. There could have been improvements to my experiment, such as using timers that are more accurate. As I repeated the experiment twice, I think that the results are capable of supporting the conclusion. This is because the results have come from a fair and careful experiment and support what was said in 'Background Knowledge' - as temperature increased, the rate of reaction did decrease. Other Experiments that could be completed on this Topic are: ? How surface area affects the rate of a reaction ? How the presence of a catalyst affects the rate of a reaction ? How the concentration of a solution affects the rate of a reaction 6 1 ...read more.

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