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Artificial Blood

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Introduction

Artificial Blood Whole Blood is a living tissue that circulates through the heart, arteries, veins and capillaries carrying nourishment, hormones, vitamins, antibodies, heat and oxygen to the body's tissues. Whole blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets suspended in a fluid called plasma. Red blood cells make up the large percentage of components in whole blood. For every droplet of blood, one billion red blood cells can be found. Red blood cells, platelets and white blood cells are found in the ratio of about 600:40:1. Red blood cells contain haemoglobin that binds with oxygen in the lungs and is then dissociated to respiring cells. At the same time, carbon dioxide is basically diffused into the red blood cells, although some diffuses into the plasma, and is then taken back to the lungs for expulsion. Platelets are very small cellular components of blood that aid the clotting process. When a cut occurs, platelets form a blockage to stop the loss of blood. ...read more.

Middle

That can minimise the risk of infection [because the chemicals can be sterilised more rigorously than blood] and will preserve blood for cases where it is really needed." Blood substitutes can stay fresh for six months or more; red blood cells go bad within six weeks. The artificial compounds bear none of the proteins and sugars (commonly called antigens) that coat blood cells and separate them into eight distinct types. Theoretically, the synthetic blood could be pumped into anyone, without fear of provoking a serious allergic reaction. Donated blood cannot be transfused into anyone because of its blood group. Blood Group UK Population O Rh-positive 38 percent O Rh-negative 7 percent A Rh-positive 34 percent A Rh-negative 6 percent B Rh-positive 9 percent B Rh-negative 2 percent AB Rh-positive 3 percent AB Rh-negative 1 percent In an emergency, anyone can receive type O Red Blood Cells, and type AB individuals can receive Red Blood Cells of any ABO type. Therefore, people with type O blood are known as "universal donors" and those with type AB blood are known as "universal recipients." ...read more.

Conclusion

In the same year Chang demonstrated that artificial cells formed from a hybrid of silicone rubber and haemolysate were very efficient in carrying and releasing oxygen. However, these solid elastic silicone rubber artificial cells did not survive sufficiently in the circulation. Extensive development was carried out in Japan by Naito, Yokoyama resulting in the development in 1976 of fluosol-DA 20 suitable for clinical testing. The biggest advantage of perfluorochemicals is that they are synthetic and can be chemically produced in large amounts without having to depend on donor blood or other biological sources. The future of artificial blood is definitely optimistic. Its advantages absolutely outweigh its disadvantages. As technology advances, the blood substitute's complexity may evolve to be as sophisticated as real human blood - acting not only as a carrier of substances, but also a defence system against disease and trauma. The artificial blood in the pipeline at the moment is no where as near as sophisticated as this, but will certainly save many lives if it comes on the market. It will stop blood wastage in operating theatres ensuring that there are ample supplies of natural blood available. ...read more.

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