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Bacteria, infection and the scientists who discovered ways to combat them.

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Bacteria are microscopic organisms whose single cells have neither a membrane-bounded nucleus nor other membrane-bounded organelles like mitochondria and chloroplasts. Another group of microbes, the archaea, meet these criteria but are so different from the bacteria in other ways that they must have had a long, independent evolutionary history since close to the dawn of life. In fact, there is considerable evidence that you are more closely related to the archaea than they are to the bacteria! Louis Pasteur (1822 - 1895) Pasteur was a French chemist and biologist who proved the germ theory of disease and invented the process of pasteurisation. He was able to demonstrate that organisms such as bacteria were responsible for souring wine and beer (he later extended his studies to prove that milk was the same), and that the bacteria could be removed by boiling and then cooling the liquid. ...read more.


Also surgery could be done with out further complications due to germs on the surgical equipment being killed. Doctors developed a better understanding of the cause of infection. Alexander Fleming (1881-1955) In 1928 Fleming was research assistant to Sir Almroth Wright working on bacteria. He accidentally discovered a mould on a set of culture dishes, which were being used to grow the staphylococci germ (which turns wounds septic). Fleming noticed that where there was mould the germs had stopped developing. It was one of Fleming's colleagues who identified the mould as penicillin. Fleming subsequently tested the penicillin on animals, with no ill effects, and also used it to cure a colleague's eye infection. Fleming had discovered the first antibiotic. ...read more.


He used this treatment on patients who had a compound fracture. Death by gangrene was common after such an accident. Lister covered the wound made with lint soaked in carbolic acid. His success rate for survival was very high. Lister then developed his idea further by devising a machine that pumped out a fine mist of carbolic acid into the air around an operation. The number of patients operated on by Lister who died fell dramatically. Lister helped disease, the science of disinfectants was born. Man's desire to end disease has led to the development of many different chemical compounds that kill pathogenic microorganisms. Joseph Lister did not discover a new drug but he did make the like between lack of cleanliness in hospitals and deaths after operations. For this reason, he is known as the 'Father of Antiseptic Surgery. ...read more.

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Response to the question

A good response to a simple question. To expand on the question the candidate should have gone into greater scientific detail behind the work of each scientist. Such as the process of pasteurisation and the experiments that were used to ...

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Response to the question

A good response to a simple question. To expand on the question the candidate should have gone into greater scientific detail behind the work of each scientist. Such as the process of pasteurisation and the experiments that were used to exactly discover each method.

Level of analysis

The candidate outlines basically what a bacteria is, but should go into more detail about the structure so that we can identify more with the bacteria. The bit about archaea is not directly relevant so should not be included. The candidate provides good depth about each major scientist in the development of the ways to combat bacteria. To develop this further they could have gone into the uses of bacteria in genetic engineering.

Quality of writing

Different font sizes used throughout with looks untidy. Punctuation, grammar and spelling good throughout. Good subtitles and use of paragraphs to make the different sections clear.

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Reviewed by skatealexia 30/07/2012

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