• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Biology case study vaccination and MMR are they linked?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Kathrine Keller Case study: Does The MMR Vaccine cause autism? Contents: ? What is MMR? ? The Vaccination ? The Effects ? Autism ? The Autistic Spectrum ? Are They Linked? ? Arguments for and against. Vaccination Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (the Vaccine) to produce immunity to a disease. Vaccines can prevent or ameliorate the effects of infection by a pathogen. It is considered to be the most effective and cost effective method of preventing infectious diseases. The material administrated can either be live, but weakened forms of pathogens such as bacteria or viruses, killed or inactivated forms of these pathogens, or purified material such as proteins. Smallpox was the first disease people tried to prevent by purposely inoculating themselves with other types of infections; smallpox inoculating themselves with fluid taken from mild cases of smallpox Vaccination is so named because the first vaccine was derived from a virus affecting cows\the relatively benign cowpox virus\which provides a degree of immunity to smallpox, a contagious and deadly disease. Vaccination efforts have been met with some controversy since their inception, on ethical, political, medical safety, religious, and other grounds. Early success and compulsion brought widespread acceptance and mass vaccination campaigns were undertaken which are credited with greatly reducing the incidence of many diseases. ...read more.

Middle

AND A BRAIN ABNORMALITY THAT CAN LEAD TO METAL DETERIORATION, COMA AND EVENTUALLY DEATH. Autism AUTISM IS A DISABILITY THAT AFFECTS THE WAY THE PERSON COMMUNICATES AND RELATES WITH OTHERS. CHILDREN AND ADULTS WITH AUTISM HAVE DIFFICULTY WITH SOCIAL INTERACTION EVERYDAY, MOST PEOPLE WITH AUTISM HAVE A VERY LIMITED AMOUNT OF FRIENDS DUE TO NOT BEING ABLE TO UNDERSTAND OTHER PEOPLE'S EMOTIONAL EXPRESSIONS, MOST PEOPLE WITH AUTISM HAVE DIFFICULTY SEEING THE WORLD AROUND THEM, BUT IT DEPENDS ON THE FORM OF AUTISM THE PERSON HAS GOT. THERE IS A CONDITION CALLED ASPERGER SYNDROME WHICH IS A FORM OF AUTISM USED TO DESCRIBE PEOPLE WHO USUALLY HAVE A HIGHER FORM OF AUTISM. ALTHOUGH IT WAS FIRST IDENTIFIED IN 1943, AUTISM IS STILL AND RELATIVELY UNKNOWN DISABILITY. AUTISM IS ESTIMATED TO EFFECT 500, 000 FAMILIES THROUGHOUT THE UK. Autistic Spectrum. The autism spectrum disorders can often be reliably detected by the age of 3 years, and in some cases the earliest as 18 months. Some studies suggest that many children eventually may be able to see more accurately by the age of 1 year or even younger. The appearance of any of the warning signs of ASD is reason to have a child evaluated by someone specialized in these disorders. PARENTS ARE USUALLY THE FIRST TO NOTICE UNUSUAL BEHAVIORS IN THEIR CHILD. ...read more.

Conclusion

"A STUDY BY DOCTORS AT THE ROYAL FREE HOSPITAL IN LONDON HAS SUGGESTED THAT A COMMON CHILDHOOD VACCINE MAY BE LINKED WITH AUTISM AND CAUSE AN INTESTINAL DISORDER." "THE NUMBER OF TWO-YEAR-OLDS GIVEN THE VACCINE WAS 84% IN 2005-6, UP FROM 81% THE YEAR BEFORE, THE GOVERNMENT'S INFORMATION CENTRE SAID." CONCLUSION. I CONCLUDE USING THE INFORMATION I HAVE FOUND ABOUT AUTISM AND THE MMR VACCINE THAT THEY ARE NOT LINKED, IN MY OPINION THE ONLY REASON THE PUBLIC THOUGH THAT MMR AND AUTISM WHERE LINKED IS BECAUSE OF THE INFORMATION MADE PUBLIC IN 1998, BUT MANY OF THE PUBLIC MINDS HAVE BEEN CHANGED ABOUT AUTISM BEING LINKED AS THE NUMBER OF TWO-YEAR-OLDS HAS GONE UP OVER THE PAST YEAR FROM 2005 - 2006. GENERALLY THE EVIDENCE GIVEN AT THIS TIME AUTISM AND THE MMR VACCINE ARE NOT LINKED, EVIDENCE SHOW AND MANY OPINIONS OF DIFFERENT PEOPLE SAY THAT AUTISM AND THE VACCINE CANNOT BE LINKED THIS IS ALSO SHOWN IN THE GRAPH ABOVE. THOUGH MY EVIDENCE I HAVE COLLECT FOR MY ARGUMENT COULD STILL NOT BE RELIABLE THE ONLY WAY TO BE ABLE TO GET RELIABLE EVIDENCE, I WOULD HAVE TO SEARCH A WIDER RANGE OF EVIDENCE AND OPINIONS TO BE ABLE TO DETERMINE IF THE RESULTS POINT TO IT BEING LINKED TO AUTISM OR NOT. BUT MY RESEARCH SHOWS THE SAME POINT FOR EACH ARGUMENT. 1. HTTP://WWW.DOCTORTODAY.CO.UK/SERVICES.HTM?GCLID=CLNKG5OGSY0CFSHDEAODVEI-RW 2. HTTP://IMAGES.GOOGLE.CO.UK/IMGRES?IMGURL=HTTP://WWW.HOPEPROJECT.IE/_SITE/HOPEPROJECT/ASSETS/GRAPH1.GIF&IMGREFURL=HTTP://WWW.HOPEPROJECT.IE/ 3. HTTP://HCD2.BUPA.CO.UK/FACT_SHEETS/HTML/MMR.HTML 4. HTTP://NEWS.BBC.CO.UK/1/HI/HEALTH/1705991.STM 5. HTTP://NEWS.BBC.CO.UK/1/HI/UK/60510.STM 6. HTTP://NEWS.BBC.CO.UK/1/HI/HEALTH/5388260.STM 7. HTTP://WWW.NIMH.NIH.GOV/HEALTH/PUBLICATIONS/AUTISM/COMPLETE-PUBLICATION.SHTML 8. HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/VACCINATIONS 9. HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/MMR_VACCINE ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Humans as Organisms section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

4 star(s)

****
A very good summary of autism and MMR in this essay but the question of whether the MMR vaccine causes autism was not central to the essay. A brief introduction to both autism and MMR would have been fine and then start looking and analysing the evidence for a link between the two.
It did not address the very serious danger that due to people deciding not to have the MMR jab it led to a massive increase in the cases of childhood deaths from measles.
Also half the writing being in capital letters makes reading very difficult.

Marked by teacher Jon Borrell 08/01/2013

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Humans as Organisms essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Biology Revision notes - Human Biology

    5 star(s)

    Respiration The food we consume is broken down into glucose using oxygen. We breathe in O2 and then release CO2. Glucose + Oxygen Carbon Dioxide + Water (+ Energy) Diet When too many saturated fats are consumed, plaque builds up and narrows the arteries.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    The Effects of Exercise on the Heart Rate

    4 star(s)

    We would not be able to judge if all traces of lactic acid had indeed been carried from the legs. This would affect the following trial because the lactic acid building up in the legs would make them work slowly and eventually have cramp in the leg.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    An investigation into the effect of temperature on the rate of respiration in yeast

    4 star(s)

    Also I am going to take 3 runs for each temperature rather than 2, and work out an average. Analysing My results show that below 20 oC, anaerobic respiration has hardly started and is too slow to allow a measurable volume of carbon dioxide to be evolved in three minutes.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    The effect of different sugar substrates on the rate of yeast respiration

    4 star(s)

    Sucrose is used in many plants for transporting food reserves, often from the leaves to other parts of the plant. Galactose Galactose is one form of a disaccharide. It is a common sugar in milk and in yoghurt. Its structure is shown below The chain form of galactose follows the same pattern as that for glucose, with 6 carbons.

  1. Human biology short notes

    Fast Surface area of the barrier High Fast Thickness of the barrier Thick Slow Concentration gradient Steeper Fast Enzymes Characteristics of Enzymes * Protein in nature * Affected by high temperatures and pH * Bio catalyst, they speed up a chemical reaction without getting used up during a chemical reaction

  2. Experiment to Investigate Factors Affecting the Rate of Respiration in Yeast

    If I had realised this mistake sooner, then I would have rectified it by repeating this experiment again. I followed my safety rules as well, and this meant that I didn't cut or burn myself. I followed my Plan and Method, and these ensured that my experiments ran smoothly and efficiently, and the minimum of time was wasted.

  1. An experiment to investigate the rate of anaerobic respiration of yeast in various respiratory ...

    To do this I will use a water trough with water at 30 degrees filled to the top, with the syringe containing the yeast and sugar solution completely immersed in water. It is essential that the syringe is completely immersed in the water as all parts of the solution must

  2. What are the ethical and moral issues surrounding cigarette smoking?

    it is illegal to buy cigarettes under the age of 16, when children should make their own decisions. "Smoking is a social prop for children who are insecure"14. Children idolise celebrities many of them publicly contributing to adolescent smoke on screen 39.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work