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Biology Coursework

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Introduction

Inside Living Cells Respiration - is the process of breaking down glucose to release energy which goes in every cell The energy is used to * Build up larger molecules (proteins) * Maintain body temperature * Contract muscles Aerobic respiration is respiration with air Anaerobic respiration is without air Glucose + Oxygen --> Carbon Dioxide + Water (Energy) Diffusion - the movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration Cells in the body need oxygen and glucose but they have a low concentration of them so oxygen and glucose is diffused from the blood in the capillaries to these cells The product of respiration is carbon dioxide, which leaves a high concentration of it in the cells, so they diffuse to the blood (where it is eventually breathed out) When exercising you respire more because your muscles need energy (which is a product of respiration) to contract. Breathing rate increases because you need more oxygen in your body so that muscles have enough energy to contract. This means that the heart rate increases because it needs to get the oxygenated blood around. Both also increase so that you can get carbon dioxide out quicker. If you do loads of exercise you start respiring anaerobically (doesn't use oxygen). This is an inefficient way to release energy from glucose. ...read more.

Middle

Tissue - collected group of cells (heart muscle) Organ - a collection of tissues (heart) Plant growth can regenerate (grow back if damaged, like worms) and grows continuously. Plant growth needs: * Soil nutrients: nitrates, phosphates (photosynthesis aid), nitrates (plants make proteins) * Light; without photosynthesis they don't get glucose needed fro energy * Temperature: growth is fastened when hot * Carbon Dioxide: needed for photosynthesis * Oxygen: needed for respiration. Also creates it as by-product * Plant hormones Auxins - plant growth hormones. It is produced in the tips and stimulated cell elongation (cells don't divide but get bigger). Auxin Processes: For Shoots (Stimulate growth): * Shoot grows toward light; when a shoot is exposed to light, Auxin will build up on the side in the shade so that the cells grow faster on the shaded side * Shoots grow away from gravity; if a shoot is growing sideways, Auxin will build up on the lower side this makes it grow faster and bends it upwards For Roots (Inhibit growth): * Roots grow toward gravity; when roots grow sideways Auxin builds up on lower side, this makes top elongate faster which makes the roots bend down * Roots grow toward water; if there is an uneven amount of moisture on either side of root, Auxin will build up on that side which causes the other to grow faster which makes it bend toward the water Plant ...read more.

Conclusion

Interdependence - where different species depend on eachother for survival Size and distribution of a species depend on: * Adaptation - how well the species is adapted to environment * Competition - How well they compete for resources * Predation - How well the species avoids being eaten Acid rain is caused by Sulphur Dioxide and Nitrogen Oxides Released by burning fossil fuels. When the gases mix with rain clouds they form dilute nitric acid and sulphuric acid. Acid rain can damage statues, and make lakes more acidic which kill, kill trees and ruins limestone buildings. Low pH = Acidic --> Neutral <-- High pH = Alkaline Water can be polluted by: * Fertilisers and Sewage (Eutrophication) * Industrial Chemicals * Oil from accidents * Metals: lead and mercury are poisonous Tests can see how polluted water is: * Chemical test for phosphates and nitrates * Oxygen concentration (eutrophication would make oxygen concentration lower) * Checking pH of water (lower = acidic = acid rain) Polluted water contains fewer organisms. Some organisms only live in dirty/clean conditions, you can tell by making observations. Conservation - protecting natural environment and wildlife and balance the damage humans do. It's important to maintain biodiversity because each organism depends on another so if one dies it could affect all the other organisms. Coppicing - Cutting trees but leaving stump so it can grow back Reforestation - Trees replanted where they have been cutdown Replacement Planting - Trees are planted elsewhere at same rate as cutdown ...read more.

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3 star(s)

***This appears to be a set of revision notes for a Biology B2 unit.
To improve
The notes are brief and to the point in most areas but there are fundamental errors in the Meiosis/ Mitosis section which need to be corrected before using. Making your own revision notes is always a good idea because you will remember what you have written down more easily but double check the key information before using it for the exam.
Try to use the correct terms rather than 'it' or 'itself' as this should gain you marks in the exam.

Marked by teacher Stevie Fleming 03/01/2013

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