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Chemistry GCSE Coursework

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Introduction

AIM: I will investigate the effect of concentration on the rate of reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid. Also to find out how much and how quick hydrogen is produced. Magnesium, symbol Mg; silvery white metallic element that is relatively reactive. In group 2 of the periodic table, magnesium is one of the alkaline earth metals. The atomic number of magnesium is 12. The rate of a chemical reaction is a measure of how fast the reaction takes place. It is important to remember that a rapid reaction is completed in a short period of time. BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Magnesium(s) + Hydrochloric acid(aq) = Magnesium Chloride(aq) + Hydrogen(g) Mg + 2HCl = MgCl2 + H2 In the reaction when the magnesium hits the acid when dropped in, it fisses and then disappears giving of hydrogen as it fisses and it leaves behind a solution of hydrogen chloride. The rate at which all reactions happen are different. An example of a fast reaction is an explosion, and an example of a slow reaction is rusting. For particles to react:- a) They have to collide with each other. b) They need a certain amount of energy to break down the bonds of the particles and form new ones. This energy is called the "Activation Energy" or Ea. When we increase the temperature we give the particles more energy which: 1) Makes them move faster which In turn makes them collide with each other more often. ...read more.

Middle

The reactant Sodium Biocarbonate The reactant / only used for pilot test Gas Syringe To measure the amount of Hydrogen released Bung To make sure no Hydrogen escapes Thermometer To measure the temperature Timer To time the experiment Goggles To protect my eyes Paper Towels To absorb any spilt acid Method: 1. Put 25ml of 3.0molar hydrochloric acid into a 250ml conical flask. 2. Connect the syringe and the thermometer onto the bung 3. Add a strip of magnesium into the conical flask which has 25ml of hydrochloric acid already inside. 4. Place the bung on top of the conical flask as soon as the magnesium has been dropped and start the timer. 5. Record every ten seconds how much the syringe has moved until the magnesium strip has gone and record how long it took for the magnesium to disappear. 6. Clean Equipment 7. Repeat experiment changing only the concentration of acid using this set of dilutions. Preliminary Work With the purpose of embarking on this investigation with some background knowledge, I set up an experiment to decide what was the best concentration level to use for my actual experiment and the ideal volume of hydrochloric acid to use. I used the following concentrations in my pilot experiment: 1M, 2M, 3M and 4M with a fixed volume of 4cm" of hydrochloric acid. Results of preliminary experiment: Concentration of acid (M)Time taken for Magnesium to react (s) 1155 262 336 413 Fom my results I can clearly see that anything between the concentrations of 1M-3M would be fine, the reaction for 4M was very quick, and using it in my real experiment would not be worthwhile. ...read more.

Conclusion

I have highlighted that particular point on graph 1 in blue. Another possible reason is that when the reaction takes place, bubbles of H2 are given off, which might stay on the magnesium, therefore reducing the surface area of the magnesium so the acid cannot react properly so this affects the results. The final reason for my anomalous point is that there may have been some slight human error when stopping the stopwatch. In order to improve the accuracy of my results I could: use a computer to time the reaction. repeat the experiment three times and then calculate an average time between the three tests to have a larger range of results. the magnesium used is very reactive and as it is stored in a bottle which is not fully covered, oxygen can reach the element. This is bad due to it being known as an element that can react with oxygen. This reaction is known as oxidation. The magnesium has been oxidised and this affects my results slightly. However, the results obtained were accurate. If I were to do a similar experiment I would like to test the affect of concentration on the rate of reaction on other Metals. As there are also some other reactant metals, some even more reactive than Magnesium and also because they too are Elements. I would expect the results graph to have a similar shape or trend. For example I could test the metal Sodium, Which I could probably predict from now a more reactive metal than Magnesium. Sodium follows the same rules as magnesium except for the fact that it is not in strips. ...read more.

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