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Compare and Contrast, Eukaryote and Prokaryote Cells

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´╗┐The Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cell. In the early 1950?s, building on Darwin?s idea of a ?warm little pond? giving rise to the first life (99% Ape), Stanley Miller, at the University of Chicago, introduced sparks of electricity, simulating lightening, to a mixture of gases and other substances thought to have made up the earths early atmosphere and oceans, in order to see if this was in fact how the first life began. This experiment, and similar, have thus far turned up nothing more than the formation of some amino acids.(Bill Bryson) Further research has given scientists a more well formed idea that the first signs of life would have arisen at the bottom of the ocean around hydrothermal vents(Nick Lane). Whichever theory proves true, life started off with just a few positively tiny things. It is thought that these amino acids would have arranged into macromolecules such as proteins and amino acids, which are crucial building blocks of life.(NCBI) ...read more.


Phospholipids are made up of a phosphate head which is hydrophilic, and as such can face towards the water on both the outside and the inside of the cell, with the hydrophobic fatty acid tails facing in towards each other. In both cases, this layer is responsible for isolating the cells contents from the outside world, and allowing transport into and out of the cell, as well as providing a shape for the cell. It is arranged in what is known as the ?Fluid Mosaic Model?. This is due to the arrangement of proteins set within the two phospholipid layers, which can move freely around within the membrane. Prokaryotic cells are also contained within a cell wall, as well as a cell membrane, a feature found in some eukaryotic cells. Another feature sometimes shared by prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are flagella, which are small projections from the cell which enable locomotion. ...read more.


They both contain an organelle known as the endoplasmic reticulum, takes part in synthesising proteins and lipids, in the rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum respectively, and send them off to the Golgi apparatus. In both plant and animal cells, this is the organelle responsible for processing proteins, and enzymes, and is also involved in producing lysosomes - a very small organelle responsible for ridding the cell of waste organelles and involved in the destruction of the cell itself (Class notes). Silvertown, J. (2008) 99% Ape: How Evolution Adds Up. 2nd ed. London: Natural History Museum. 41-46 Bryson, B. (2003) A Short History of Nearly Everything ?.ed. Great Britain: Black Swan. 350. http://biology.about.com/od/cellanatomy/p/ribosomes.htm (09/10/2011) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK9841/ (28/09/2011) Lane, N. (2009) Life Ascending: The Ten Great Inventions of Evolution ?.ed. London: Profile Books Ltd Watson, J.D. (1968) The Double Helix: The Discovery of the Structure of DNA Great Britain : Phoenix Kent, M. (2000) Advanced Biology 20th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press 0 ...read more.

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