• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Coronary heart disease (CHD)

Extracts from this document...


Biology Coronary heart disease (CHD) is caused the build up of fatty deposits in the arteries, which can cause clogging and lead to restricted blood flow, which will damage the heart. CHD is the number one killer in the United Kingdom1. In 1991 alone, it caused the death of around 171,000 people, a quarter of who were still under the age of 651. Another problem is that this disease has not shown any signs of it decreasing amongst the population. There are 5 main risk factors1 which can contribute towards CHD which are: 1. Hypertension 2. Smoking 3. Diabetes 4. High cholesterol 5. Family history of heart disease. Other minor risk factors include lack of regular exercise, stress and type A personalities (impatient, aggressive, competitive). If the government wants to tackle CHD, they need to target the major causes individually. The first major cause listed is hypertension, or high blood pressure. This can be affected by a series of factors such as a lack of exercise and a high salt diet. This tends to be a large problem in this country in particular due to many people now choosing to eat ready-made meals or processed food from supermarkets, which usually have a high salt content3. ...read more.


Annual Mortality per 10,000 men Smokers Current no. of cigarettes per day Cause of death Non smokers Former Current 1-14 15-24 25+ CHD 572 678 892 802 892 1,025 The above table shows exactly how smoking can cause an increase in CHD deaths7. If the public were made aware of these facts then they would be able to get an idea of how serious, smoking is and how big the effect is. It shows that by simply stopping they will reduce their chances of CHD and that even though people once were smokers, they will have a much lower chance than those who still smoke. The government has already introduced some schemes such as making Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) available on prescription8. A third factor is diabetes. Those who suffer from diabetes will tend to be more at risk from suffering from vascular disease, as well as kidney problems (and therefore hypertension), eye problems, and peripheral nerve disease5. To help these people from possibly developing CHD, there needs be better control of diabetes which will help limit the effects or progression of the disease. Diabetes causes blockage and hardening (atherosclerosis) ...read more.


Therefore, to cut down the number of CHD cases in the future, projects to improve the health of younger people should be contemplated. One of the biggest way of doing this would be by making more improved school meals available2. Projects such as the 'five-a-day' fruit scheme have begun to be put in place in schools to encourage school children to eat a piece of fruit instead of sweets or other fatty foods as snacks8. Some ways in which the government has already begun to use are things such as rapid access chest pain clinics which were introduced in 2001 and are slowly being introduced into more areas. In addition to this, at least 75% of A&E departments are now fully equipped to provide thrombolysis, which is the breaking up of blood clots, as well as some ambulances carrying the necessary equipment8. Also, there has been the introduction of defibrillators in public such as airport terminals or shopping centres, as well as a community volunteer defibrillation scheme1. So, the government hasn't totally ignored CHD, but there are many more schemes which can be put into operation as well as possible expansion on current and existing projects. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Humans as Organisms section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Humans as Organisms essays

  1. Coronary Heart Disease (CHD).

    Nicotine causes a higher concentration of fibrinogen which stimulates the clotting of platelets thus increasing the chance of developing a thrombus in an artery as the platelets are stimulated to stick to the surface of the endothelium. Nicotine increases blood pressure and heart rate, but also constricts the blood vessels.

  2. Diabetes Type 1 and 2

    As most vegetarians have reduced risk of heart disease, obesity, colon cancer, Type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, gout, gallstones, kidney stones, lung cancer, and breast cancer. A low fat vegetarian diet, combined with regular exercise, helps reduce blood pressure and can control, or even eliminate, non-insulin dependent diabetes.

  1. The Biological and Psychological Impact of Smoking Cigarettes

    The cigarette smoke also damages the cilia, the tiny hair like protections in the bronchi that sweep foreign bodies and bacteria out of the lung (10). The cigarette smoke immobilises the cilia in the bronchioles for several hours. As a result of the toxic chemicals in cigarette smoke the lungs become sponge-like with lots of large air spaces.

  2. Should people with diabetes 2 receive medical treatment?

    Scurvy is one disease that results from vitamin C deficiency. Its symptoms include bleeding under the skin, swollen or infected gums and a slow healing of wounds. Vitamin D helps to regulate the amounts of bone forming minerals such as phosphorous and calcium in the bloodstream so is vital for proper bone formation.

  1. Factors affecting the Development of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD).

    The highest pressure is systolic pressure because it is during systole when the ventricles are contracting to force blood around the body. The lowest pressure is diastolic pressure because it is during diastole when the heart is relaxed allowing the blood to fill.

  2. Factors Affecting the Development of Coronary Heart Disease.

    The study also looked at the importance of age. They considered a hypothetical man who died of coronary disease before 65. Statistically they found his identical twin would be 3 times more likely to die of coronary disease than a non-identical twin would be. This shows a powerful genetic factor, for women in the same situation the risk to

  1. The cause and consequences of atherosclerosis and hypertension and the use and action of ...

    get smaller in size and so, not enough blood gets to the heart causing problems * Myocardial infarction heart attack, can be due to the ischemia or not enough blood going to the heart * Stroke can be due to an embolism that gets stuck in the brain and doesn't

  2. Biology smoking coursework. Should smoking be banned in public places?

    Below is a picture of a cigarette and its minerals. Benefits of smoking Smoking tends to have some benefits of its own. . Smoking has been consistently found to be a protective factor on epidemiological studies for Parkinson disease. The basis for such effect is not known but possibilities include an effect of nicotine as a dopamine stimulant.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work