• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Coronary Heart Disease (CHD).

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) CHD, also known as Ischaemic Heart Disease (ischaema - reduction of blood supply to a tissue) is a disease of the two coronary arteries supplying the heart muscles with oxygenated blood and nutrients. CHD causes damage to these arteries by blocking the lumen of the vessels with plaques which leads to damage to the heart as it becomes deprived of oxygen therefore causing the heart tissue to become oxygen starved. The consequence of this is that part of the heart becomes deprived of oxygen and therefore dies as it is being effectively suffocated unless an interconnecting blood vessel can take over the supply. There are two forms of CHD - angina and myocardial infarction. Angina As the coronary arteries are not supplying heart muscle with a sufficient amount of volume they are respiring anaerobically. This causes a build up of lactic acid and the muscle cramps causing pain in the centre of the chest which radiates out to the neck, jaws and arms and back. Even gentle exercise such as climbing stairs or walking across a room may bring on an angina attack. ...read more.

Middle

It has long been considered that CVD is a self inflicted disease because the lifestyle led by sufferers has influenced the onset of the disease. The main risk factors that can lead to CVD are as follows: Diet A diet that is high in saturated fats causes a rise in blood cholesterol. In countries such as Japan where CVD is relatively rare, lower fat intakes and lower blood cholesterol are found than is typical of people in Britain. The amount of blood cholesterol is influenced mainly by the amount of saturated fats in the diet rather than the amount of cholesterol. This increases the deposition of cholesterol in the arteries leading to the formation of atheromatous plaques which are the underlying cause of CVD. Hypertension Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is associated with stress, smoking, obesity, excessive alcohol consumption and lack of exercise. Long term hypertension places an extra strain on the heart and cardiovascular system making it work harder, speeds up the development of atheromatous plaques and increases the chances of suffering from angina, myocardial infarction or stroke. Hypertension may lead to heart failure, which occurs when heart muscles weaken and are unable to pump properly. ...read more.

Conclusion

Gender Men are twice as likely to suffer from CVD than women. Testosterone has a harmful effect on the cardiovascular system and pre-menopausal women produce oestrogen which protects against CHD. Post menopausal women tend to have an increase in blood fat levels, so the risk of developing CVD increases, but treatment with hormone replacement therapy will protect the body again from CVD. Although men cannot help their gender, to lower their risk they should make extra considerations about diet, exercise and smoking. Stress Leading a stressful lifestyle may increase the risk of heart attacks and angina attacks. Stressful lifestyles are also often coupled with lack of exercise (sedentary jobs in offices), smoking, excessive alcohol intake and poor diet. Genetic factors Heart disease has an inherited component, the more close relatives you have who develop heart disease, the more likely you are to suffer too. The main reasons that CVD runs in families is that it has a genetic component - such as certain genes that may increase the risk of developing atheromatous plaques. The second reason is that families share a common environment such as diet and being in an environment with smoke from cigarettes. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Humans as Organisms section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Humans as Organisms essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Myocardial infarction

    5 star(s)

    faculties, and his/her judgment must not be impaired at the time of consenting (by sleepiness, intoxication by alcohol or drugs, other health problems, etc). en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Informed_consent Mr T was consented for treatment, nursing care and his interventional procedure. This was done once all treatments, procedures, implications, complications and alternatives were comprehensively discussed with him.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Explain how arteries, veins, and capillaries are adapted for their functions. Describe what happens ...

    4 star(s)

    At the arterial end of the capillaries, the blood pressure is high enough to cause tissue fluid containing oxygen and other nutrients to filter out through the thin walls to the surrounding cells. Branching of the capillaries is so extensive that no cell in the body is more than a few micrometers away from one and its life sustaining contents.

  1. Factors Affecting the Development of Coronary Heart Disease.

    This study shows that smoking greatly contributes to the development of coronary heart disease and a smoker is much more likely to die from the disease than a non-smoker is. Coronary heart disease is the single greatest cause of death in the western world.

  2. Does Lifestyle Affect the Development of Coronary Heart Disease? Coronary heart disease (CHD) - ...

    (www.americanheart.org, 2003) This is because as you become older your arteries become weaker. We cannot change our sex unfortunately men are at a greater risk of contracting CHD than women. They can also contract the disease at an earlier age than women.

  1. The Biological and Psychological Impact of Smoking Cigarettes

    The effects are temporary and cause patients to cough, wheeze and experience shortness of breath(6). Another disease is pneumonia. This is another respiratory diseases commonly caused by smoking. It is a serious inflammation of the lungs caused by infection with bacteria, viruses and other organisms.

  2. Factors affecting the Development of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD).

    But if a person has diabetes the target would be below 130/80mmHg. There is no fixed division line between normal and exaggerated blood pressure. High blood pressure can put a strain on the heart and the blood vessels, leading to a rupture, or thrombosis.

  1. Describe how the structure of arteries, veins and capillaries enables them to fulfil their ...

    of the heart, these are called atrioventricular valves and work in the same way as the semi-lunar valves which we will discuss later. (See diagram 1.3) The largest artery is the aorta leaving the heart which has cardiac muscle fibres in its walls for the first few inches of its

  2. Coronary heart disease (CHD)

    The second major cause is smoking, which can not only lead to CHD, but a variety of other diseases and cancers, especially lung cancer4. Smoking has many ill-effects on the body. One of the greatest of these threats is atherosclerosis.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work