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Describe and discuss how the external and internal structural components relate to and affect the major roles involved in the plant's production and development.

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Introduction

Describe and discuss how the external and internal structural components relate to and affect the major roles involved in the plant's production and development. The plant body is composed of three main regions, the root system, the vegetative system, and the floral system. Each of these systems are made up of components, both internal and external structures, which relate to and affect the major functions in the plant's production and development. The first system in plants is the roots. The roots form the underground parts of the plants. The roots have several functions, which include the absorption and transfer of water and dissolved minerals, food storage, and anchorage of the plant into the soil. The first root produced by a plant is known as the radicle, elongates during germination of the seed and forms the primary root. Roots that branch from the primary root are called secondary roots. In many plants the primary root is known as a taproot because it is much larger than secondary roots and penetrates deeper into the soil. During and after enlargement, the cells produced by the meristem acquire the characteristics of the cells of the mature tissues of the root. ...read more.

Middle

A vascular network of veins runs through the mesophyll, this network provides the cell walls with water and removes the food products of photosynthesis to other parts of the plants. The leaves of a plant make more sugar than they need. The surplus is transported to other parts of the plant, e.g. the roots to supply their needs. This process is known as translocation. Light is needed for photosynthesis to occur. The plants traps light energy from the sun and raw materials from the soil (via the roots) and converts them into food (sugar), and stores it for the life processes of the cells. In photosynthesis, carbon dioxide from the air joins with the water and minerals taken into the plant from the soil, to produce sugars and oxygen. The cells of all living organisms, including plants must break down molecules of sugars; releasing the energy they contain to meet the energy needs of the plant. This is called respiration. Respiration is almost the complete opposite to photosynthesis. The process of respiration is that the living thing takes in oxygen from the surrounding environment plus the food they produce emit waste carbon dioxide, water and energy. ...read more.

Conclusion

Carpels are the female parts of flowers. Each carpel consists of an ovary, style and a stigma. Inside the ovary are the ovules which contain the female gametes waiting to be fertilised. Stamens are the male parts of a flower. Each stamen consists of a stalk or filament with an anther at the top. The male gametes, called pollen grains, are formed inside the anther. When the pollen is ready, the anther bursts open to release it. Pollination is the process which is involved in the production of a seed, (refer to diagram g). During pollination the anthers swell and rupture, which causes the pollen to be released into the air. Wind and insects help to transport the pollen to the stigmas where it germinates and grows down the style to the ovary. In the ovary each pollen grain fertilises an ovule and produces a seed. After pollination occurs the flower degenerates, the ovary develops into the fruit and the ovule develops into seeds. All the components of plants are essential to its survival. Roots obtain and provide nutrients, stems support and leaves and flowers supply food and produce the next generation of plants. One part of the system relies on another and therefore they can not survive without one another. All the components, both internal and external are related to and affect the production and development of the plant. ...read more.

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