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Design and carry out a procedure to compare the rate of hydrolysis of the three liquid halogenoalkanes.

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Introduction

CHEMISTRY COURSEWORK HYDROLYSIS OF HALOGENOALKANES Aim: My aim is to design and carry out a procedure to compare the rate of hydrolysis of the three liquid halogenoalkanes: 1- Chlorobutane 1- Bromobutane 1- Iodobutane density/g cm-2 1-bromobutane 1.28 1-chorobutane 0.89 1-iodobutane 1.62 Less than 1 floats More than 1 sinks 1-Chlorobutane C4H9Cl relative molecular mass=92.5g mol-1 Density=0.89g cm-3 mol-1 cm-3 = 0.89 = 0.00962 mol cm-3 92.5 cm3 mol -1 = 1 =104cm3 mol -1 0.00962 1-Bromobutane C4H9Br relative molecular mass = 137g mol-1 Density=1.28g cm-3 mol-1 cm-3 = 1.28 = 0.00934 mol cm-3 137 cm3 mol-1 = 1 =107cm3mol-1 0.00934 1-Iodobutane C4H9I relative molecular mass =184g mol-1 Density=1.62g cm-3 mol-1 cm-3 = 1.62 = 0.00880 mol cm-3 184 cm3 mol-1 = 1 =114cm3mol-1 0.00880 As you can see the results, the conclusion for my result are too big to fit into a test tube, hence I will have to make it smaller so it can fit into the test tube. We will use 1/50 moles of each halogenoalkanes So that it will fit into the test tube without any problems 1/50 mole of 1-Chlorobutane ...read more.

Middle

Bond Bond Enthalpy / Kjmol-1 C-Br 276 C-C 328 C-I 240 Apparatus: Thermostatic water bath 60oc Thermometer Three test tubes 3 x Stoppers Test tubes rack Stop clock Measuring cylinder 10cm3 1m 1-Chlorobutane Ethanol 1m 1-Bromobutane Pipette 1m 1-iodobutane 0.05m Silver Nitrate solution Method: I'll start of this experiment by accumulating all the apparatus essential to do this experiment. 1) Set the water bath to about 60oC 2) Mark three test tubes A, B and C, so I know which is which. I'll then add 2cm3 of ethanol to each of the test tube. The solution ethanol has be used as a common solvent for the halogenoalkanes and silver ions, since halogenoalkanes aren't soluble in water. 3) Add 2.08 cm3 1-chlorobutane to test tube A, 2.14cm3 of 1-Bromobutane to test tube B and 2.28cm3 of 1-Iodobutane to test tube C. Measure the volumes precisely and accurately using a pipette. 4) Now I'll place the three test tubes in the water bath, and watch the temperature rise to 60oC. ...read more.

Conclusion

Halogenoalkanes are flammable. Their vapours are irritating and harmful, so I will have to avoid inhaling them. Since ethanol is highly flammable. I'll keep bottles shut when not in use and well away from naked flames. I'll avoid skin contact because I'll be wearing gloves and I will not breathe the vapour. I will use the same test tubes with the same diameter. I will ensure that the solutions are not put in the boiling water to avoid evaporation of ethanol. Conclusion: I have already predicted that 1-iodobutane will react the fastest for the precipitate to materialize and 1-chlorobutane will take the longest period for the precipitate to materialize. At the end of the experiment I will clarify what the results show and the relationship between the 3 halogenoalkanes are and I will show you if my prediction was right or wrong. I will also draw a graph and explain what the graph shows because looking at a graph will illustrate how close the difference was between 1-iodobutane and I-bromobutane. I can also say that I have enjoyed planning this experiment and I hope to do the experiment very shortly. Ashish Khatri 12DG Page 1 ...read more.

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