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# Determination of the solubility of calcium hydroxide.

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Introduction

Determination of the solubility of calcium hydroxide I have been given a sample of calcium hydroxide and have to find the solubility of the sample. When dissolved in water it forms an alkali solution so the method I will be using is an acid-alkali based titration. The acid I am using will be hydrochloric acid. Equation- Ca(OH) + 2HCl CaCl + 2H O Apparatus- I want to use apparatus with a low percentage error to enable my results to be as accurate as possible and also use realistic measurements of the solutions that I will be using in my experiment. Concentration of acid- Using the balanced equation you can see that the ratio between calcium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid is 1:2. We already know the approximant concentration of Ca(OH) and the concentration of hydrochloric acid. These are 0.015 mol dm and 0.300 mol dm . At these concentrations the ratio is 1:20 so the hydrochloric acid will have to be diluted to 0.03 mol dm before we can use it. This would be made by adding 25cm of HCl (using a 25cm pipette to measure the volume) ...read more.

Middle

Summary of apparatus- 25cm pipette Pipette filler 50cm burette White tile 100cm conical flaks 100cm beaker 250cm volumetric flask Waste beaker Calcium hydroxide (approx. 0.015 mol dm ) Hydrochloric acid ( 0.300 dm ) Methyl orange indicator Distilled water Method- 1. Make up 250cm of 0.03mol dm of HCl in a volumetric flask using instructions on previous page. 2. Wash out pipette with HCl and then empty it in to the waste beaker (hold pipette at top when connecting the pipette filler). 3. Fill the pipette with 25cm HCl again but this time add to the conical flask (which has also been washed out with HCL) 4. Add a few drops of methyl orange indicator. 5. Wash out burette with Ca(OH) and the let it run out in to waste beaker. Re-fill with Ca(OH) ensuring tap is closed. Make sure there are no air bubbles in the tap. 6. Run out the Ca(OH) until it is at eye level as it is easier to read the volume. Read to volume that is at the bottom of the meniscus and record it. 7. While swirling the conical flask add the Ca(OH) . 8. Look for the end point (a slight colour change) ...read more.

Conclusion

* Each time I use the HCl I will tip the volumetric flask upside down to ensure the solution is mixed. I have included detailed explanations of how to make up the diluted HCl and a method of how to carry out the experiment. In my method I have stated how to read apparatus correctly and things to do to ensure that it is a controlled experiment. Risk Assessment- Hydrochloric Acid- Corrosive and irritant. Wear eye protection and a lab coat. If substance gets in to eyes, mouth or on skin wash with water and seek medical attention. Calcium Hydroxide- Corrosive and irritating to eyes. Wear eye protection and lad coat. If hands are contaminated and the substance gets in to eyes or mouth flood with plenty of water and always seek medical attention. Calcium Chloride- Irritant to eyes, skin and respiratory system. Is dangerous with water as it is an anhydrous salt and can cause water to boil. Wear eye protection and lab coat. Use in a well ventilated area. If substance gets in to eyes, mouth or on skin then wash with water and seek medical attention. Sources I have used- Information on the use of indicators in acid-alkali titration sheet Hazard cards Salters chemistry notes ...read more.

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