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Discover how certain factors can affect the rate of reaction between limestone (calcium carbonate) and hydrochloric acid (2m acid).

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Introduction

Investigating Reactions: This investigation is to discover how certain factors can affect the rate of reaction between limestone (calcium carbonate) and hydrochloric acid (2m acid). Plan There are many things that can be varied such as: Temperature Concentration of acid Surface area Mass of CaCO? Time Amount of 2HCL Adding catalysts In my experiment I have chosen to investigate how temperature affects the rate of reaction between CaCo? + 2HCL. I will determine the rate by measuring the amount of CO� produced in this reaction against time, and how different temperatures affect this. Although this is the variable I wish to change, I must keep everything else the same in order to ensure a fair test. These things are: Amount of acid (50cm�) Mass of CaCO? (5 grams) Time to measure reaction (5 minutes- to ensure the experiment lasts a sufficient time for results to be taken) Concentration of acid Surface area of calcium carbonate (small chips) Apparatus used - Thermometer - Conical flask - Electronic scales - Measuring cylinder - Spatula - Paper cups (to weigh calcium carbonate) - Stopwatch - Bunsen burner (to heat acid) - Ice (to cool acid) Diagram Of Apparatus: The reason I have chosen small marble chips in my experiment, is because I believe that for this reaction powered calcium carbonate would have a too large surface area, in which the reaction would take place too quickly to record accurate measurements. ...read more.

Middle

0.89 0.90 1.12 1.24 1.55 300 0.96 0.91 1.18 1.25 1.58 Analysing Results: In order to evaluate my results correctly, I plotted my results. I also calculated the initial rate for each temperature. Gradient (Initial Rate) g/sec Temperature (�C) 0.0017 10 0.003 20 0.0073 30 0.01 40 0.021 50 After analysing the graph, it shows that the rate of reaction increases (more gas is produced) as the temperature increases. This affect between the two variables is shown in the overall pattern of the curves. Also, a more general correlation between the variables is shown in the gradient against temperature graph. As a result of this, I can conclude that the 'Collision Theory' is the correct scientific knowledge that proves why temperature increases the rate of reaction, therefore This theory is that for particles to react they must collide with each other, and must collide with enough energy to guarantee that they do not just bounce off each other, but make a successful hit. Certain factors; concentration, surface area, or temperature in my case, increase the frequency of collisions, by causing the particles to vibrate more rapidly. Temperature also causes the collisions made between the particles to be more successful, which in turn increases the rate of reaction. My Evaluation: After observing the strong correlation between the increase of temperature and rate of reaction, I can prove that my experimental method was quite accurate, and proved to also be fair. ...read more.

Conclusion

However, computers are not available in schools to perform such tasks. Therefore, I believe I performed my experiment well, as my results proved my prediction and showed a strong pattern between variables. Like I said before, in order for the results to be as fair and accurate as possible, I must eliminate all mistakes stated previously. To improve the experiment; although not necessary, I believe that taking an average of each measurement would make sure that my results are as accurate as possible, and show a tighter pattern of correlation. Bearing in mind the results of my experiment, I can conclude, that the higher the temperature, the faster the rate of reaction. This can be proved by the fact, that every 30 seconds when I made my recordings; there was more CO� gas let off, as the temperature increased. The scientific knowledge I have that can support my conclusion on my outcome of results is based on the collision theory. This concludes that for particles to react they must collide with each other, and must collide with enough energy to guarantee that they do not just bounce off each other, but make a successful hit. Temperature is just one variable that causes the particles to vibrate more rapidly, which increases the rate of reaction by increasing the number of successful hits between vibrating particles. Chemistry Coursework ...read more.

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