• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Discover how certain factors can affect the rate of reaction between limestone (calcium carbonate) and hydrochloric acid (2m acid).

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Investigating Reactions: This investigation is to discover how certain factors can affect the rate of reaction between limestone (calcium carbonate) and hydrochloric acid (2m acid). Plan There are many things that can be varied such as: Temperature Concentration of acid Surface area Mass of CaCO? Time Amount of 2HCL Adding catalysts In my experiment I have chosen to investigate how temperature affects the rate of reaction between CaCo? + 2HCL. I will determine the rate by measuring the amount of CO� produced in this reaction against time, and how different temperatures affect this. Although this is the variable I wish to change, I must keep everything else the same in order to ensure a fair test. These things are: Amount of acid (50cm�) Mass of CaCO? (5 grams) Time to measure reaction (5 minutes- to ensure the experiment lasts a sufficient time for results to be taken) Concentration of acid Surface area of calcium carbonate (small chips) Apparatus used - Thermometer - Conical flask - Electronic scales - Measuring cylinder - Spatula - Paper cups (to weigh calcium carbonate) - Stopwatch - Bunsen burner (to heat acid) - Ice (to cool acid) Diagram Of Apparatus: The reason I have chosen small marble chips in my experiment, is because I believe that for this reaction powered calcium carbonate would have a too large surface area, in which the reaction would take place too quickly to record accurate measurements. ...read more.

Middle

0.89 0.90 1.12 1.24 1.55 300 0.96 0.91 1.18 1.25 1.58 Analysing Results: In order to evaluate my results correctly, I plotted my results. I also calculated the initial rate for each temperature. Gradient (Initial Rate) g/sec Temperature (�C) 0.0017 10 0.003 20 0.0073 30 0.01 40 0.021 50 After analysing the graph, it shows that the rate of reaction increases (more gas is produced) as the temperature increases. This affect between the two variables is shown in the overall pattern of the curves. Also, a more general correlation between the variables is shown in the gradient against temperature graph. As a result of this, I can conclude that the 'Collision Theory' is the correct scientific knowledge that proves why temperature increases the rate of reaction, therefore This theory is that for particles to react they must collide with each other, and must collide with enough energy to guarantee that they do not just bounce off each other, but make a successful hit. Certain factors; concentration, surface area, or temperature in my case, increase the frequency of collisions, by causing the particles to vibrate more rapidly. Temperature also causes the collisions made between the particles to be more successful, which in turn increases the rate of reaction. My Evaluation: After observing the strong correlation between the increase of temperature and rate of reaction, I can prove that my experimental method was quite accurate, and proved to also be fair. ...read more.

Conclusion

However, computers are not available in schools to perform such tasks. Therefore, I believe I performed my experiment well, as my results proved my prediction and showed a strong pattern between variables. Like I said before, in order for the results to be as fair and accurate as possible, I must eliminate all mistakes stated previously. To improve the experiment; although not necessary, I believe that taking an average of each measurement would make sure that my results are as accurate as possible, and show a tighter pattern of correlation. Bearing in mind the results of my experiment, I can conclude, that the higher the temperature, the faster the rate of reaction. This can be proved by the fact, that every 30 seconds when I made my recordings; there was more CO� gas let off, as the temperature increased. The scientific knowledge I have that can support my conclusion on my outcome of results is based on the collision theory. This concludes that for particles to react they must collide with each other, and must collide with enough energy to guarantee that they do not just bounce off each other, but make a successful hit. Temperature is just one variable that causes the particles to vibrate more rapidly, which increases the rate of reaction by increasing the number of successful hits between vibrating particles. Chemistry Coursework ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Patterns of Behaviour section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Patterns of Behaviour essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The Effect of Concentration on the Rate of Reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium ...

    3 star(s)

    In these experiments the product should be the amount of carbon dioxide produced in the fastest time, depending on the amount of concentration. The reaction will have to produce 80cm of CO which will be measured by the gas displacing water out of a water filled cylinder which is connected to a side-arm flask where the reaction is taking place.

  2. Free essay

    Chemistry Rate of Reaction Coursework for Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid

    The fact that the reactants had already started to react whilst the timer hadn't even been set yet due to the fact the top pan balance had to be reset was an extremely unreliable factor.

  1. How does the concentration of acid affect the rate of a reaction with calcium ...

    logical steps of 10% between each concentration, letting any mathematical patterns to become more visible. Also the marble chips used in the experiments were different each time and varied in size, from >0.5cm to <2cm this caused them to have different surface areas which may affect the rate of reaction.

  2. Measuring the Rate of Reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate

    Therefore, there will be more collisions every second between the carbonate ions and the H+ ions. Thus, there will be more successful collisions between the atoms and the rate of reaction will increase. Quantitatively, if the concentration of hydrochloric acid is increased, I think the rate of reaction will increase

  1. Prove that changing the surface area of calcium carbonate chips, either by increasing or ...

    I will prepare my stop clock so I am ready to start the timer as soon as I pour my calcium carbonate chips into the acid. When I am fully prepared I will remove the rubber bung, which will be covering the conical flask whilst I am setting up for safety reasons, (to avoid spilling it and hurting someone)

  2. Free essay

    How does Concentration affect the rate of reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate

    burette to the flask * We the put the other end of the gas burette into the measuring cylinder * When ready, we put the calcium carbonate tablet into the flask and began the timer * Every 5 seconds, the amount of water lost from the measuring cylinder was measured

  1. Investigating how the concentration of acid affects the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid ...

    We should have marble chips that have been accurately cut into certain surface areas to minimise this effect. Some of the marble chips did not react all once as they were in the solution. This may have been caused by contamination of the marble chips.

  2. Investigating the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate

    see the cross disappearing I will time the reaction until it finishes. I will use five different dilutions of hydrochloric acid and water which have a difference of 5 between them to keep it a fair test and in order to have the most accurate results.I will also wash out

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work