• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Discover how certain factors can affect the rate of reaction between limestone (calcium carbonate) and hydrochloric acid (2m acid).

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Investigating Reactions: This investigation is to discover how certain factors can affect the rate of reaction between limestone (calcium carbonate) and hydrochloric acid (2m acid). Plan There are many things that can be varied such as: Temperature Concentration of acid Surface area Mass of CaCO? Time Amount of 2HCL Adding catalysts In my experiment I have chosen to investigate how temperature affects the rate of reaction between CaCo? + 2HCL. I will determine the rate by measuring the amount of CO� produced in this reaction against time, and how different temperatures affect this. Although this is the variable I wish to change, I must keep everything else the same in order to ensure a fair test. These things are: Amount of acid (50cm�) Mass of CaCO? (5 grams) Time to measure reaction (5 minutes- to ensure the experiment lasts a sufficient time for results to be taken) Concentration of acid Surface area of calcium carbonate (small chips) Apparatus used - Thermometer - Conical flask - Electronic scales - Measuring cylinder - Spatula - Paper cups (to weigh calcium carbonate) - Stopwatch - Bunsen burner (to heat acid) - Ice (to cool acid) Diagram Of Apparatus: The reason I have chosen small marble chips in my experiment, is because I believe that for this reaction powered calcium carbonate would have a too large surface area, in which the reaction would take place too quickly to record accurate measurements. ...read more.

Middle

0.89 0.90 1.12 1.24 1.55 300 0.96 0.91 1.18 1.25 1.58 Analysing Results: In order to evaluate my results correctly, I plotted my results. I also calculated the initial rate for each temperature. Gradient (Initial Rate) g/sec Temperature (�C) 0.0017 10 0.003 20 0.0073 30 0.01 40 0.021 50 After analysing the graph, it shows that the rate of reaction increases (more gas is produced) as the temperature increases. This affect between the two variables is shown in the overall pattern of the curves. Also, a more general correlation between the variables is shown in the gradient against temperature graph. As a result of this, I can conclude that the 'Collision Theory' is the correct scientific knowledge that proves why temperature increases the rate of reaction, therefore This theory is that for particles to react they must collide with each other, and must collide with enough energy to guarantee that they do not just bounce off each other, but make a successful hit. Certain factors; concentration, surface area, or temperature in my case, increase the frequency of collisions, by causing the particles to vibrate more rapidly. Temperature also causes the collisions made between the particles to be more successful, which in turn increases the rate of reaction. My Evaluation: After observing the strong correlation between the increase of temperature and rate of reaction, I can prove that my experimental method was quite accurate, and proved to also be fair. ...read more.

Conclusion

However, computers are not available in schools to perform such tasks. Therefore, I believe I performed my experiment well, as my results proved my prediction and showed a strong pattern between variables. Like I said before, in order for the results to be as fair and accurate as possible, I must eliminate all mistakes stated previously. To improve the experiment; although not necessary, I believe that taking an average of each measurement would make sure that my results are as accurate as possible, and show a tighter pattern of correlation. Bearing in mind the results of my experiment, I can conclude, that the higher the temperature, the faster the rate of reaction. This can be proved by the fact, that every 30 seconds when I made my recordings; there was more CO� gas let off, as the temperature increased. The scientific knowledge I have that can support my conclusion on my outcome of results is based on the collision theory. This concludes that for particles to react they must collide with each other, and must collide with enough energy to guarantee that they do not just bounce off each other, but make a successful hit. Temperature is just one variable that causes the particles to vibrate more rapidly, which increases the rate of reaction by increasing the number of successful hits between vibrating particles. Chemistry Coursework ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Patterns of Behaviour section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Patterns of Behaviour essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    What affects the rate of a reaction? The reaction I will be investigating is ...

    3 star(s)

    Method: 1. Weigh out the desired size and weight of marble chips using a measuring scale and put them into a conical flask. 2. Measure out the desired volume of hydrochloric acid that is of a desired concentration using a measuring cylinder.

  2. Free essay

    Chemistry Rate of Reaction Coursework for Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid

    In general, the human dependent methods turned out to be the least feasible, i.e. timing and observation, and observation of precipitation. In the science industry, a human reliant factor would be extremely impractical because of the lack of accuracy. Although these methods were far simpler than the rest, they were also the least reliable.

  1. Measuring the Rate of Reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate

    This is because by doubling the number of hydrochloric acid molecules present the chance of a collision should be doubled, as there is now twice the possibility of a collision-taking place initially. Diagram The values for my preliminary experiments Out of the powdered calcium carbonate, the large calcium carbonate chips, I chose small calcium carbonate chips.

  2. Free essay

    How does Concentration affect the rate of reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate

    45 25 75 50+ 50+ 50+ 50+ 27 80 50+ 50+ 50+ 50+ 29 85 50+ 50+ 50+ 50+ 30 90 50+ 50+ 50+ 50+ 32 95 50+ 50+ 50+ 50+ 33 100 50+ 50+ 50+ 50+ 34 105 50+ 50+ 50+ 50+ 35 110 50+ 50+ 50+ 50+ 37

  1. Investigate how concentration of hydrochloric acid (HCL) affects its reaction with calcium carbonate (CaCO3).

    The point of the anomalous result was above the line of best fit. From this I can tell that too much gas was being produced. There is only one many anomalies for the 2 molar acid set of results, so I can again say that the results are pretty reliable.

  2. To investigate the factors which affect the rate of reaction between marble chips and ...

    I repeated the results 3 time so that I can spot any anomalies due to inaccuracies. In order to keep a fair test, only the surface area (i.e. size) of the marbled chips is variable. Other variables are to be kept constant to avoid obtaining wrong results.

  1. Chemistry Cwk Rates of reaction: Investigating One Factor Which Affects How Fast Calcium Carbonate ...

    The volume of nitric acid will remain 50ml. Firstly, 2g of calcium carbonate chips will be weighed using a pair of scales accurate to 2 decimal places. This ensures a high level of accuracy and, if at all, the weight of the chips for different experiments will only deviate slightly.

  2. Investigating the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate

    of the reaction therefore I will only variable I will be changing is the volume of hydrochloric acid by diluting it with water. which means to keep it a fair test I will use the same amount (0.1g) of calcium carbonate which is a powder because this allows us to

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work