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emzymes in industry

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Introduction

The Importance of Water in Living Organisms Without a doubt water is the most important compound. Water plays a vital part in the every day life of every organism; from providing a perfect environment for the reproductive cells of animals, to photosynthesis, The reasons for waters necessity are due to its unique chemical properties. The image shown above is taken from Heinemann Advanced Science Biology. It shows the hydrogen bonds between water molecules in red. These hydrogen bonds are essential in plants so that the water molecules can stick together and long columns of water can be sucked up tall trees by transpiration without breaking (www.biologymad.com). Water, being the single most important component in the entire world is not just important in human and animal cells, it also has huge significance externally too. I feel that water effects all substances, this may be because of its chemical and physical properties. Water is one of the only substances I know of that can be found naturally in any of the three states,(gas, liquid and solid). 'The water molecule is slightly polarised. This means it has a very slightly negative end - the oxygen atom - and a very slightly positive end - the hydrogen atom . . .this is called a dipole. (Heinemann Advanced Science Biology')because of this polarity water has been called a 'universal solvent', meaning it can easily ionise other substances this is of great importance as ionic, covalent and polar substances dissolve in water or a solution containing water. ...read more.

Middle

In the process of fertilisation water is particularly needed, semen which contains the sperm is mostly water hence the translucent colouring. Without this water the sperm would not be able to reach the ovum and could therefore not fertilise the egg. It provides a water-based environment for the reproductive cells and for the development of embryos in land-based species (Heinemann Advanced Science Biology). Water is a helpful lubricant as it reduces the friction between two objects and eases movement. This is why joints like the shoulder socket and ball never touch, this is because the bone is cushioned by the water this fluid is known as the 'synovial fluid' .All internal organs are precious and if damaged cause serious problems often leading to death, this is why most organs are protected and lubricated by fluids (mostly water). The most important fluid is the 'cerebro-spinal fluid' which protects the brain. Water is also virtually impossible to compress adding to the factor it is a good protective fluid. Water can also be used for support, it is well adapted for this role as its cohesive forces with in molecules. Plant cells have both a membrane and a cell wall, but if the plant cell becomes too full of water it does not burst as expected (unlike a balloon which would burst very quickly as there is no support) but instead the cell wall creates an equal force which makes the cell rigid which leads to support which is how plants have long stems. ...read more.

Conclusion

this means that aquatic organisms don't have to quickly adjust to their surrounding habitat. This thermal stability is also seen within the water-based protoplasm of individual cells, and allows the biochemistry of life to be carried out at a fairly constant rate (Heinemann Advanced Science Biology). . Water is also used as a kind of communication between DNA and protein in living organisms with cells containing DNA. The concentration of water around DNA corresponds with biological activity and changes as it becomes closer to the surface of the DNA. It seems that water molecules linger longer and rotate more slowly around base pairs that form a double helix than others. If water molecules linger longer around some base pairs than others, the level of hydration will mirror the sequence of base pairs (New Science magazine), dictating the order in which amino acids are knitted together to make proteins. This way the water molecules communicate to the protein the DNA sequence while it is still quite far away and can even warn the approaching protein about problems with the DNA before it arrives. If DNA is distorted due to some defect it becomes more hydrated and the protein can't make proper contact (Monika Fuxreiter of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences Biological Research Centre in Budapest, New Science magazine). All living organelles depend on water, both plants and mammals need water to survive. Without water the world would not be as we know it, not a single organism that would be able to survive as all reactions take place with in a aqueous solution. ...read more.

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