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Experiment to show the rate of a chemical reaction when changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid

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Introduction

Experiment to show the rate of a chemical reaction when changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid I am going to investigate the effect of the concentration of the acid solution, Hydrochloric acid to see how this changes the rate of reaction. For my experiment I will use sodium thiosulphate as my constant and I will be changing the concentration of hydrochloric acid and water. I predict that as the concentration of hydrochloric acid increases, the rate of reaction also increases. I also think that the time taken for the experiment to finish will decrease as the concentration of the hydrochloric acid will increase. These graphs show my expected results: In a high concentration, there are more particles of hydrochloric acid in a certain volume, this means there is a higher chance of a collision because there are more acid particles. As there are more collisions, the rate of reaction will increase. The 'Colliosion Theory' supports my prediction as for a chemical reaction to happen, the reacting particles must bang into, or collide, with each other with enough force or energy ( the activation energy) to break bonds. This is collision theory. If the particles do not have have this energy, they will just harmlessly bounce off one another. If two particles meet, they may rebound with no reaction, but if they collide with enough force, a chemical reaction will occur. ...read more.

Middle

* Stop the stopwatch when the mixture has become too cloudy for the cross to be visible. * Record the time in a results table and repeat each experiment, three times to then find the average time of each reaction. * Wash the flask before proceeding with next reaction * Do this for each concentration of hydrochloric acid I will ensure my experiment will be fair by keeping the sodium thiosulphate consistant throughout the experiment, it is my solution which I am keeping constant at 40cm�.I will make sure I measure the hydrochloric acid and water accurately using the correct measuring cylinders for each chemical. I will ensure I stop the reaction at the same point of visibility for each time. I will wash out the flask after every use to get rid of any left over chemicals from the previous reaction. Other factors which effect the rate of reaction and could alter my results are: * the presence of light * the temperature * the size of the particles of a solid reactant I will control these factors by keeping them all constant throughout the experiment, the temperature will stay at room temperature. I have decided to run a pre-trial test to check if my method is practical to use for my experiment. I will use three readings for my pre-trial, there will be one reading from using a stong concentration of hydrochloric acid, one using a weak concentration and one with a middle concentration. ...read more.

Conclusion

The closer together they are, the more often the ions collide. The more often the collide, the more chance they have of reacting. Evalutaion From my experiment I have obtained an accurate set of results which show me a precise pattern from which I expected. From my graph all of my points are near to the line of best fit which shows the quality of my results are good and I have no sign of anomolous results, they all fit the same pattern.Throughout my investigation I follwed my method which was successful, I managed to conduct my experiment thouroughly and collect good, accurate result. I did not come across any difficulties whilst performing my investigation, the experiment was fair meaning my results are valid. The equipment we were given to use for the experiment was quite basic, but the outcome was still good and gave me my expected results.To improve this experiment I could have used more sophisticated equipment to measure the solutions. I was given measuring beakers which were quite inaccurate, I would have much rather of used a burette. As the measuring beaker was not accurate, it means that the measurement of the solutions were not accurate. This could have lead to my results not being flawless either. If I were to perform this experiment again, I would improve it by using a more accurate way of observing the 'X' disappearing, perhaps by using an opto-electronic system to measure when the solution becomes opaque. This would eliminate human error. ...read more.

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