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Factors That Affect the Rate of a Chemical Reaction.

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Introduction

Observation on: Factors That Affect the Rate of a Chemical Reaction Name: Fahad E. Al Butairi Badge: #277045 Instructor: Mr. Fawaz Abstract: It's useful to be able to predict whether an action will affect the rate at which a chemical reaction proceeds. There are several factors that can influence the rate of a chemical reaction. In general, a factor that increases the number of collisions between particles will increase the reaction rate and a factor that decreases the number of collisions between particles will decrease the chemical reaction rate. As we will see in the following experiments there are different types of factors that will affect the rate of a chemical reaction. Introduction: What is a Chemical Reaction? A chemical reaction occurs when substances (the reactants) collide with enough energy to rearrange and form different compounds (the products). This type of collision is called a successful collision, and the energy used to form these compounds is called the Activation Energy. What is the Activation Energy? Activation energy is the amount of energy required for the reactants to successfully react. The reactants need a certain amount of energy, any extra energy increases they're chance of a successful collision. What is the rate of a chemical reaction? The rate of a chemical reaction is a measure of how quickly a reaction proceeds with time. The reaction rate is a quantity that defines how the concentration of a reactant or product changes with time. ...read more.

Middle

The temperature was recorded in table 3. 4. A 10 cm piece of magnesium ribbon was taken; it was cleaned with some iron wool and placed in the conical flask. 5. The flask was closed immediately with the stopper on the delivery tube and the stopwatch was started. 6. The volume of gas produced each minute as recorded in Table 3 over a period of 10 minutes. 7. Steps 2-6 above were repeated except a conical flask with 0.10M HCl that had been cooled in some ice was used. 8. Steps 2-6 above were repeated except a conical flask and acid solution were heated in a water bath to about 92�C. 9. Finally, Steps 2-6 above were repeated again except a conical flask and acid solution were heated in a water bath to about 56�C. 10. At the end of the experiment, the magnesium ribbons were thrown into the waste bin and the conical flasks were all washed. Part 4 - The Effect of Catalysts (Metal Ions): 1. The apparatus was assembled as shown in diagram 1. 2. 25 ml of 1.0M HCl acid was measured out with a measuring cylinder and was put in a conical flask. The magnetic stirrer bar was added and the solution was allowed to stir for a few seconds. A small lump of zinc was taken and placed in the conical flask. ...read more.

Conclusion

Concentration: Concentration affects the rate of a reaction because the higher the concentration of particles the greater the chance of a successful collision. The general trend is that the concentration is directly proportionate to the rate of the reaction. As we can see from graph 2, as I have stated before as the concentration increases the rate of the chemical reaction greatly increases also. Improvements: If I was to do this experiment again I would probably make it more accurate by: - Using a Burette to measure the amount of gas given off. This would measure a lot more accurately the amount of gas given off. - Using smaller particles of magnesium and zinc and similar weight. So I could match up surface area and weight more accurately each time. - Checking if the concentration of acid is proportional to the rate of the reaction. - Taking control of the stopwatch. There is lots of room for human error here but mainly this can be somewhat neglected. - Using some kind of a gadget that can start the stopwatch in the same instant of the first bubble when appears. - Using more purified distilled water will enhance the experiment. - In this experiment, Mg was used regardless of its real length. It is believed that applying the experiment with measured lengths of Mg ribbons may provide us with results and proofs that will drive to discover a certain pattern that will finally lead us to a fixed law (equation). Literature Cited: - Merrill's Chemistry Book. - http://www.chemtopics.com/unit09/unit9f.htm - http://www.maps.jcu.edu.au/course/CAUTscience/rate/rate05d.shtml - http://www.usoe.k12.ut.us/curr/Science/core/plans/rate2.html - http://www.chem.uidaho.edu/~honors/rate1.html - http://chemistry.about.com/library/weekly/aa100702a.htm ...read more.

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