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Find out the effect of acid concentration on the rate of reaction

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Introduction

Coursework - Rates of Reaction By Danny Rowe In this investigation I am aiming to find out the effect of acid concentration on the rate of reaction. In a chemical reaction there are four factors that affect how quickly the reaction takes; this is also known as its reaction rate: * Temperature * Concentration * Surface Area * Catalyst The reaction I will be looking at is the reaction between magnesium (Mg) and Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) 2Mg + 2HCl -> 2MgCl + H2 I will not be looking at the effect of temperature because this variable is difficult to control, surface area is very difficult to measure and catalysts would be very expensive, therefore I have decided to do concentration as this is easy to measure and vary. To do this investigation I will get different concentrations of acid and time, using a digital stopwatch how long it takes for the acid to react with the magnesium. This will give me the reaction rate which I can incorporate into a graph and compare which other data to help me determine how acid concentration affects the reaction time. To make the experiment as safe as possible I am going to make every effort to insure that I am wearing goggles at all times and that there is no possibility of any nearby objects obstructing me or potentially making the experiment dangerous. ...read more.

Middle

To help me develop my prediction I have used various sentences from the webpage, www.chem4kids.com/files/react_rates.html. Now that I have developed a prediction based on theoretical knowledge and information from other sources I now have the ability to develop a graph displaying the likelihood of the results. The graph is below: The reason why I felt that the rate of reaction is proportional to the acid concentration is that from my understanding I feel the higher the acid concentration the faster the rate of reaction, which I have backed up with scientific evidence previously. Towards the end there is a slight bend, the reason why I have incorporated this is that I feel that it would begin to gradually level off to 0.01 seconds as I feel it would be incorrect to suggest that with a acid concentration of fifty millilitres it will take 0.01 seconds to react with the acid when at forty millilitres it takes 250 seconds. Now that I have a solid understanding of what I am going to do in the investigation and have a rather strong prediction with accompanying evidence I am now ready to begin. The results I have retrieved are below: Acid/Water (ml) Time 1 (S) Time 2 (S) Time 3 (S) Time 4 (S) Time 5 (S) Average (S) 50/0 79.8 75.0 66.6 73.8 74.4 73.92 40/10 94.2 68.4 91.8 126.6 85.2 93.24 30/20 420.6 306.0 273.0 180.6 249.6 285.96 20/30 687.0 727.8 634.8 739.8 787.8 715.44 10/40 901.8 975.6 ...read more.

Conclusion

and see how that makes a difference to the reaction rate. After completing this, if the shape of the line followed a similar pattern to the previous tests then this would dramatically support my evidence and prediction. The chemical equation is below 2K + 2HCl -> 2KCl + H2 The results I have retrieved from the tests are below: Acid/Water (ml) Time 1 (S) Time 2 (S) Time 3 (S) Time 4 (S) Time 5 (S) Average (S) 50/0 48.4 53.5 66.6 28.7 50.4 49.52 40/10 57.7 39.2 57.6 97.6 55.1 61.44 30/20 383.8 247.7 233.4 151.0 213.8 245.94 20/30 646.9 692.2 605.7 707.4 752.5 680.94 10/40 868.9 938.7 947.4 888.7 935.0 915.74 To make the data easier to analyse and interpret, I am going to place the data into a graph which is located below: From the graph it is evident that there is a positive correlation and that the rate of reaction increases at a relatively proportional rate to the acid concentration which is exactly what occurred in the previous experiment. The only major difference is that the overall reaction time is significantly quicker, which is almost certainly due to the fact that potassium is higher then magnesium in the reactivity series. This helps me significantly prove the below statement. From this investigation I have found out that the higher the acid concentration the quicker the reaction rate as there is more acid particles to collide with the magnesium, which I have thoroughly backed up in numerous ways. This document was downloaded from Coursework.Info - The UK's Coursework Database 1 ...read more.

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