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Find out the factors that affect the rate of reaction.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Science Investigation RATES OF REACTION Secondary resources From research I can find out the factors that affect the rate of reaction. Collision Theory. A chemical reaction can only occur between particles when they collide (hit each other). Particles may be atoms, ions or molecules. There is a minimum amount of energy which colliding particles need in order to react with each other. If the colliding particles have less than this minimum energy, then they just bounce off each other and no reaction occurs. This minimum energy is called the activation energy. The faster the particles are going, the more energy they have. Fast moving particles are more likely to react when they collide. You can make particles move more quickly by heating them up (raising the temperature). Changing the Rate of a Reaction. There are 5 ways to increase the rate of a chemical reaction. They are all understood in terms of Collision Theory. The rate of a chemical reaction may be increased by; 1) Raising the Temperature. 2) Increasing the Concentration (in solution). 3) Increasing the Pressure (in gases). 4) Increasing the Surface Area of a solid. 5) Use a catalyst. The 1, 2, 3 and 4 above will decrease the rate of reaction. A catalyst will change the rate of reaction. A catalyst can make a reaction go faster or slower. In practice, a catalyst is mainly used to make a reaction go faster. The resource above was found in the Internet and the web site that this was found on is ; http://www.gcsescience.com/xrc.htm How does temperature affect the rate of a chemical reaction? When two chemicals react, their molecules have to collide with each other with sufficient energy for the reaction to take place. This is collision theory. The two molecules will only react if they have enough energy. By heating the mixture, you will raise the energy levels of the molecules involved in the reaction. ...read more.

Middle

Time (s) Rate of reaction (1/time) Amount of gas to collect (Cm3) 8cm 1 25 35.23 0.0284 40 8cm 1 25 20.03 0.0499 40 5cm 1 25 24.16 0.0414 40 Another thing that we found when doing the pre-test is that all the magnesium should be submerged into the hydrochloric acid so all of it gets reacted with if only half of it would cause anomalous results to occur. From these pre-tests I have found out that using the collecting method is more convenient for this experiment. AIM In this investigation I am trying to find out how the surface area of magnesium (a metal) effects the rate of reaction with hydrochloric acid (a acid) the way that I am going to test this I am going to time how long it takes 40cm3 of hydrogen a gas to be collected in a measuring cylinder and then I will work out the rate of reaction (1/time) I am going to show the results on a graph. PLAN / METHOD * Fill a trough about half way up with water making sure that the beehive shelf you will be using will be under the water. * Place the beehive shelf in the water. * Fill a measuring cylinder that holds 40cm3 with water full to the top making sure that there are no air bubbles inside it. * Hold the top with your hand making sure that none of the water falls out. * Turn it upside down and place it over the top hole on the beehive shelf still making sure that there are no air bubbles, if there are air bubbles refill it and do it again. * Get a conical flask with a bung connected to a delivery tube and another smaller tube that will be connected to the syringe. * Place the delivery tube inside the side hole of the beehive shelf. ...read more.

Conclusion

A reaction will only occur if the particles in the gas or liquid collide with the particles in the solid. Increasing the surface area of the solid increases the chances of collision taking place. From the prediction that I made I can say that it matches my analysis. EVALUATION I can say that both of my graphs show consistent results and are accurate, there are no anomalous results except for one which is in the rate of reaction graph, 2 of the same surface area have the same rate of reaction, they are (5/4) and (5/8) and they both have the rate of reaction, which is 0.06. I think that to make the results more accurate I could have had the rate of reaction to 3 decimal places to have more precise answers or I could have had my rate of reaction results in standard index form, which would make the numbers shorter and readable. If I would do this experiment again I think that the thing that I would change is the way I varied the surface area. Instead of cutting up the strips I could have used different forms of magnesium e.g. big lumps, small lumps, smaller lumps, smallest lumps and than powder all weighing the mass 2g this would make the range between the result much more different and clearer on the two graphs. The bad thing about the way I set up my experiment is that as there was no beehive shelf available so I had to hold the measuring cylinder this caused some of the hydrogen gas bubbles to come out of the side of the cylinder. Another reason was, while I was holding the measuring cylinder it wasn't to at straight level as there was no beehive shelf so I had to read the numbers carefully until 40cm3 of hydrogen had been collected. Overall I think that my investigation did go well as my results did match my prediction and also I found out the answer to the aim of the investigation. PLANNING Jashoda Patel 10T ...read more.

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