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Give an account of the physiological effect of 3 recreational drugs on the human body

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Introduction

Give an account of the physiological effect of 3 recreational drugs on the human body Name: Behrooz Khoshooee Student Number: 283644 Biology, April 2006 Introduction This paper would look into three different recreational drugs and their physiological affect on human body. These drugs are Nicotine, Alcohol and Ecstasy. We will study each drug and explain how they would affect different body systems. Nicotine For many years people have been smoking or chewing the leaves of tobacco plant which is a main source of nicotine. Nicotine is an organic compound made of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen; this type of compounds is called alkaloid and they have intoxicating effect on human body. Another alkaloid compounds which we enjoy their effect on our bodies is caffeine (O'Connell). In human body nicotine would spread through skin, lungs and our Mucous membranes (i.e. the lining of our nose or gum). So from those areas nicotine would move into the blood vessel and than move to brain before spreading to the rest of body. Nicotine doesn't stay very long in human body and it has half-life of about 60 minutes (O'Connell). Effect of Nicotine on Body Nicotine would change the way brain and body works. One of the first changes would be a rapid release of adrenaline. Adrenaline is normally known as the Fight or flight hormone. ...read more.

Middle

Alcohol would leave the body with help of kidney and liver (and lungs) and that is where it could do a lot of damage and cause long-term problems (Freudenrich). In kidney blood will be filtered and alcohol would turn into urine and leave the body. Kidneys would do the same for any other drug which means alcohol or any other poisons will travel through our kidneys. So drinking more alcohol means more exposure of our kidneys to alcohol and more damage to its tissues. Although kidneys are tough but they are not unconquerable and consuming alcohol could cause in temporary failure or slowly getting damage and causing in permanent failure (Kidney centre). After filtering the blood, kidneys have another function and that is to control the water level of body. So when body needs more water the pituitary gland in our brain would releases vasopressin hormone, this hormone is also called anti-diuretic hormone "ADH". These hormones would make nephron filters to not let water leave our body and pass more water back into blood stream. Each kidney has millions of nephrons, they are collection of capillaries where waste can filter through the cell walls and can then be removed (Kidney Link). Pituitary gland is controlled by hypothalamus, this is part of brain that not only control pituitary gland but controls many automatic functions of brain through actions on the medulla. ...read more.

Conclusion

dancing) he/she is losing salts through sweating. At the same time some people drink lots of water which it would dilute the salt in blood and the salt level would be lowered to a dangerously low level. This would cause some body systems to fail and body would start showing sings of emergency or crisis like vomiting, confusion and one of the main signs is their brain would start to swell which is called brain edema and this could lead to brain damage and death (Erowid). This has been known as the most common reason for any ecstasy related death. Conclusion Although by using these drugs you might feel good about yourself, feel more confidence, be able to work better, concentrate better or dance all night but at the same time you are damaging your body and some of these damages could be permanent. Another problem with these drugs is being addictive, after while using them you wouldn't feel the same with out them and you become dependent on them. So you would use more drugs to feel the same and damaging your body more at the same time. The main outcome of this paper would be that these drugs are no benefit to human and their body and if you haven't used them so far don't try them and if you are using them its time to stop. Reference: Books: Royal college of physicians, "The medical consequences of alcohol, a great and growing evil" Ralph E. Tarter and David H. ...read more.

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