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How Concentration Affects the Rate of Reaction of Hydrochloric Acid and Magnesium Ribbons

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Introduction

How CONCENTRATION Affects The Rate of Reaction of Hydrochloric Acid and Magnesium Ribbons A chemical reaction is the process in which substances change into other substances. Chemical reactions can only take place when atoms, molecules, or ions collide with each other in order to share or exchange electrons. What happens in chemical reactions is that bonds are broken down, and new ones are made instead. To start a chemical reaction, reactants are needed in order to mix and chemically combine to give products. The rate at which the products are formed is called the rate of reaction. In this investigation, the reactants that will be used are magnesium and hydrochloric acid. The products I will result with will be magnesium chloride and hydrogen gas. The chemical reaction is shown in the following equation: Magnesium + Hydrochloric Acid Magnesium Chloride + Hydrogen Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) MgCl (aq) + H (g) Through these chemical equations nothing is revealed about the rate of reaction. However, what is shown through the equations is that a displacement reaction has occurred. Following the reactivity series, magnesium is shown as a more reactive chemical than hydrogen. Keeping this in mind, in a displacement reaction, "the more reactive metal will displace the less reactive metal from solutions of its compound". And so, this explains why magnesium displaces hydrogen, producing magnesium chloride and giving off hydrogen as a gas. We know as a fact that different chemical reactions take place at different rates. This is proven through usual daily life occurrences. The ripening of fruit is an example of very slow chemical reactions. Precipitation is an ideal example of very fast chemical reaction. ...read more.

Middle

9. Observe magnesium strip critically, once the strip disappears immediately stop stop-clock. 10. Record concentration of solution, and the result. 11. Repeat steps 1-10 for every concentration of the solution you have pointed out. * AFTER ONE SET OF RESULTS HAS BEEN COLLECTED, ANOTHER SET OF RESULTS FOR THE SAME CONCENTRATIONS MUST BE TAKEN. THIS WILL GIVE ME ACCURATE AND CONSISTANT RESULTS, WHICH I WILL BE ABLE TO RELY ON IN ORDER TO PUT TOGETHER A FINAL CONCLUSION TO THIS INVESTIGATION. Safety: Safety is an area where every person taking part in practical work should be cautious of, not only for their safety but the safety of others around them. In this particular experiment, hydrochloric acid will be used and all sorts of glassware, therefore I have to keep in mind that: * I use safety glasses; concentrated hydrochloric acid can irritate eyes. * Be careful with the use of hydrochloric acid, if any gets on skin, must be washed away immediately. Irritant. * I must be cautious of all the glassware I am using, breakable and can cut through skin. * I dispose all chemicals safely once I am done with using them. Preliminary Work: Concentration: Concentration Acid (cm�) Water (cm�) Time (mins) 5 95 more than 10 mins. 10 90 9: 10 100 0 0:15 I have found that the most reasonable range to take in my results is between the following concentrations (inclusive): 100 cm� of hydrochloric acid + 0 cm� of water 10 cm� of hydrochloric acid + 90 cm� of water Temperature: This variable must be decided on. Once we find the right temperature, we must maintain it throughout the experiment in order to conduct a fair test. ...read more.

Conclusion

3) When measuring the volume of acid and the volume of water, I could have been a bit inadequate due to the lack of time. Things may have been rushed towards the end of the experiment. There were some results that I was surprised with, and it was for the same concentration in both tests I carried out. The time for the reaction with 10cm� of hydrochloric acid and 90cm� of water seems completely out of range compared to the time for the reaction with 15cm� of hydrochloric acid and 85cm� of water. My results could have been more reliable if I had repeated the test a third time. However, the fact that I was running out of time did not help. Despite all this, I think the method of gaining the results was quite a good approach. The range of results were quite spread out, and gave me a large span to compare my prediction with. There were no exact patterns throughout the set of results I obtained. However, there was an obvious relationship, which is that as I increased the acid concentration the reaction time decreased. If I were set more time to investigate other aspects of the original question I would try to look for other relationships, or patterns. For instance, the part of my prediction, which says that, if you double the concentration of the acid, the rate of reaction would uniformly double. If I were given more time, I would investigate that bit of the predication specifically, and try to be more accurate to see if that prediction is true in any way. Or maybe if there is other patterns such as, if I double the concentration, the rate of reaction triples or quadruples. ?? ?? ?? ?? Chemistry Coursework RATES OF REACTIONS 1 ...read more.

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