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How does concentration affect the rate of reaction?

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Introduction

How does concentration affect the rate of reaction? Planning Experimental Procedures: Prediction: My prediction is that the higher the concentration of reactive substances in an experiment will reflect directly upon the rate of the reaction, in that it will be speeded up in comparison to an experiment with a lower concentration of reactive substance. My reasoning for this explanation is that the rate of reaction depends on how frequently the molecules of the reacting substances collide. A more concentrated substance has more molecules for a given volume than a more dilute substance. Because there are more molecules about, the frequency of successful collisions is greater, and the reactions happen faster. Diagram: Low Concentration High Concentration There are various factors affecting the rate of reaction that I need to take into consideration, these are: A) Temperature- I will conduct all the tests at room temperature on the same day because temperature has an effect on the rate of the reaction. B) Shaking or stirring- I will try not to jog the solutions so that I do not alter the rate of reaction. ...read more.

Middle

The higher the concentration of reactive substance in the experiment the faster the reaction will take place. This is because if there is a high concentration of reactive substances it increases the likely-hood of the two different sets of particles colliding. So therefore in relevance to this particular experiment I have found that the more sodium thiosulphate that is added to the solution speeds up the reaction, for example: where there is a high concentration; 10cm3 of hydrochloric acid and 50cm3 of sodium thiosulphate, it takes on average 53.665 seconds for the reaction to be complete. And where there is a low concentration; 10cm3 of hydrochloric acid and 10cm3 of sodium thiosulphate it takes on average 353.02 seconds for the reaction to complete, this is because there is a lower probability of the particles colliding. Though other things have to be taken in to account such as the amount of particles in the solution, for example when the water is equal to the amount of sodium thiosphate particles it creates an even lower chance of the particles colliding as many of the sodium thiosphate particles can collide with the water, using up their energy and producing no reaction. ...read more.

Conclusion

When studied the graphs clearly back up my prediction. Though my results did prove my prediction well enough, as always there is stillroom for improvements until there are no anomalous results. Ways in which I could improve the experiment could be that I measure the chemicals more accurately or in order to eliminate human error I use a light sensor to decide when the experiment is complete. Just using the eye is not accurate way of judging the end of the experiment, as it is not unremitting. If I had the chance to do the experiment again I would find a way of measuring the chemicals more accurately in order to produce more accurate results. Not only that I would try to extend the experiment so I could try different combinations of sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid, this would show me if it changed the rate of reaction any further. I would keep the room temperature stable so that a change of heat would not effect the movement of the particles, which would make the move faster into each other and react faster. And finally I would use a light sensor to judge when the experiment was complete. Martin Jones 4M Mr. Williamson ...read more.

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