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# How feathers effect heat loss in penguins.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

TITLE - HOW FEATHERS EFFECT HEAT LOSS IN PENGUINS. NAME JOE TROIANO FORM 5B INTRODUCTION State what the overall aim of the experiment is. Give brief details of any preliminary work you did and how it has helped you to identify the key parameters for this experiment. The overall aim of this project is to investigate how feathers affect heat loss in penguins. Before my preliminary experiment I decided to take the temperature every 3 minutes and use 0g, 5g, 10g, and 15g in the plastic bag also the starting temperature of 55 C - 60 C. Then after the preliminary experiment I decided to change some of the measurements so it help to suit the way I am setting up my experiment. These are the changes I will now undergo - 1) I will take the temperature every 1-minute. 2) I will have to lower amounts of feathers the amounts of feathers because every 5g is too big. 3) But I will keep the temperature the same. Now after these changes I am now ready to set up a full experiment. WHAT FACTORS DO YOU NEED TO CONTROL OR VARY IN THIS EXPERIMENT. State the key factors to vary control or take account of (remember the fair test). Give brief explanation of how you would control each. I will have to remember to keep a fair test throughout the experiment this is the definition I will have to keep to throughout the experiment - *Only one factor is changed at a time while all other factors are kept as their highest and their best value * During this experiment the factors that will be the independent variable is the amount of feathers. The different amounts of feathers after my preliminary experiment will know be 0g, 2g, 4g and 8g then I will repeat it again and then get an average. The factors of this experiment that will stay the same are these - *The amount of water, which will be 40ml. ...read more.

Middle

* Get a plastic bag and wrap it around the test tube. Put an elastic band around it to stop it from falling off. * Clamp the tube to the clamp stand. * Now collect 40ml with a measuring cylinder from the water bath and pour it carefully into the test tube. * Now put the thermometer into the test tube and read the temperature when the temperature reaches 55 C - 60 C you can start the stopwatch. * Using the stopwatch take the temperature every 1 minute for 10 minutes. * Now repeat this experiment to get an average. (With feathers) * Now you need to start to add feathers into the plastic bag. * Measure 2g on the electronic scales and put them into the plastic bag and spread them evenly through the bag. * Now wrap the plastic bag around the test tube and use an elastic band to hold the bag to the test tube. * Clamp the test tube to the clamp stand. * Measure 40ml in a measuring cylinder from the water bath pour it carefully into the test tube with feathers around it. * Now put the thermometer into the test tube and when it reaches 55 C - 60 C you can start the test tube. * Now take the temperature every minute for 10 minutes then repeat the experiment. * You will have to do the same for 4g, 6g and 8g. HOW HAVE YOU MADE THE EXPERIMENT MORE ACCURATE? State how your experiment helps you to gain results. Include controls and secondary experiments. The ways I made the experiment more accurate is like this - * For all of the different measurements of feathers I took the temperature in the same place this is because of convection currents. * I tried to keep the experiment in the same environment to do this I done all of the experiments in the same place of the classroom. ...read more.

Conclusion

HOW ACCURATE ARE YOUR RESULTS AND DID YOU GET ANOMALOUS RESULTS. State any limitations or problems with the experimental procedure. State whether you got any anomalous results and why you think you got them. Can we still accept the evidence? Is the evidence sufficient to support a firm conclusion? The irregular results are at the 4g readings. The rate of heat loss for 4g is greater than the rate of heat loss in 2g.This could be due to a change in the environment or because of different types of feathers. Some feathers may be able to trap more air than other; this may explain why the rate of heat loss is greater in 2g than 4g of feathers. The thermometer may have been moved into a different part of the test tube when reading the temperature causing the temperature to go up. We can still accept this evidence because they all follow the same basic pattern. HOW COULD THE EXPERIMENT BE MADE MORE ACCURATE? Give full details of changes you could make to the method to make it more accurate. State any further work that could be carried out to investigate the problem further. To make it more accurate you would have to take the temperature in the same place in the test tube. The way to do this is to have an extra clamp to hold the thermometer in the same place so it does not touch the glass because this can affect the temperature. There is heat loss in the top and bottom of the test tube, a way you can stop this by if you put the test tube in a pouch to cover the bottom. A rubber bung can stop the heat loss in the top with a hole in to put the thermometer in. Another way to get the readings more accurate is to repeat the experiment again this enables you to get a more accurate average. ...read more.

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