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How the temperature of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of marble chips dissolving in the acid.

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Introduction

Laura Slater Science Coursework 2001/2 Rate Of Reaction Plan Aim I aim to see how the temperature of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of marble chips dissolving in the acid. Prediction I think that as the temperature of the hydrochloric acid increases the time it takes for the volume of gas to collect will decrease. I know this because when particles are heated they move around quicker and as they move faster more and more collisions occur which causes more gas to be produced. Equipment For this experiment I will need: * Conical Flask-With Bung * Rubber Tubes * Water bath/container * Measuring cylinder * Burette * Thermometer * Stop clock * Stand, Clamp and Boss * Bunsen burner * Tripod * Gauze * Beaker * Scales (to weigh the marble chips) Diagram Method Firstly I will measure out 20 ml of hydrochloric acid with a measuring cylinder, I will then use the scales to weigh out 5g of marble chips. I will fill the burette up to the top of the measure scale with water. Then I will set up the equipment (^ as above ^) I will heat the hydrochloric acid to the desired temperature and use the thermometer to check the temperature is correct, if it is then I will then pour the hydrochloric acid into the conical flask and tip in the marble chips, quickly I will start the stop clock as I put the bung in the flask. ...read more.

Middle

By doing this the collision theory can be introduced. The hotter the acid particles get, the more they move around and 'bump' into the marble chips causing them to be dissolved and more gas to be given off. * I will use the same amount of marble chips and acid each time, if I used different amounts each time then it would be like doing different experiments. * I will use large surface area marble chips; if I used assorted surface areas this would not be a fair test. * I will use the same concentration of acid each time because a stronger or weaker concentration will alter the time it takes for the marble chips to give off gas and then the experiment will not be a fair test. Preliminary tests In the previous experiments I performed, I found out which variables to use and I worked out from the results which intervals of temperature to use. I also checked the results and drew up a better results table than the one I had planned to use in the experiment originally. Obtaining Evidence My results were: Temperature of Hydrochloric Acid Time to collect 20 cm3 of gas (s) Test 1 Test 2 Average 25 o C 29.13 27.72 28.43 30 o C 24.19 25.39 24.79 35 o C 21.41 19.82 20.62 40 o C 15.40 ...read more.

Conclusion

I would use that method again because it was quite simple and easy to follow. If I had to do this experiment again I might have used concentration of the acid as my variable to see if it gives as good results as temperature of the acid, if I did that I would have to take other variables into account and other precautions would have to be taken to make it a fair test e.g. what kind of water I would use for concentrating the acid. The results may be higher or lower because of the strength of the acid. In my preliminary test the results are higher or took more time because the concentration of the acid wasn't as strong as the acid I used in the proper experiment. The graph I have drawn from these results is very reliable. It has no anomalous results and every point is on the line or very close by. This shows that I did a very good and accurate practical experiment. The evidence I have gathered is good enough to gather a conclusion. The results and graph show a minutely curved line, which shows that as temperature increases so does the rate of reaction. If I had to improve my method I would do more repeats to make certain that my results were accurate. I may also do two different types of concentration to see how that affects the rate as well as temperature. ...read more.

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