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How to write an element in chemical notation?

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Introduction

ATOMIC STRUCTURE Objectives * be able to define an atom, molecule and an ion * be able to list the sub-atomic particles of an atom * be able to define atomic number, mass number and isotopes * be able to understand the different symbols and notations of elements * understand how electrons are arranged in atoms * be able to list the 1st 20 elements in their correct order with the correct symbols and their respective sub-atomic particles and how to draw a diagram of an atom * be able to define and calculate the relative atomic mass of elements * be able to understand the Periodic Table * understand the uses of unstable isotopes An atom - smallest part of an element that can exist on its own and still possess the properties of that element A molecule - a combination of atoms i.e. 2 or more atoms which could be different or the same An ion - this is an electrically charged species with either a positive charge or a negative charge An atom contains 3 particles; a proton, a neutron and an electron Properties of the 3 sub-atomic particles Proton Neutron Electron relative charge +1 0 -1 relative mass 1 1 1/1840 location inside the nucleus inside the nucleus orbiting the nucleus Atomic number - equals the number ...read more.

Middle

The 1st shell can hold a maximum of 2 electrons, the 2nd shell can hold a maximum of 8 electrons, the 3rd shell can hold a maximum of 18 electrons. *The 4th shell will not be discussed at this level* The 1st 20 elements with their respective sub-atomic particles Key A - mass # # of e-s - number of electrons Z - atomic # # of ns - number of neutrons E.C. - electronic configuration Element Name Symbol Z A # of ns # of e-s E.C. Hydrogen H 1 1 1 1 1 Helium He 2 4 2 2 2 Lithium Li 3 7 4 3 2.1 Beryllium Be 4 9 5 4 2.2 Boron B 5 11 6 5 2.3 Carbon C 6 12 6 6 2.4 Nitrogen N 7 14 7 7 2.5 Oxygen O 8 16 8 8 2.6 Fluorine Fl 9 19 10 9 2.7 Neon Ne 10 20 10 10 2.8 Sodium Na 11 23 12 11 2.8.1 Magnesium Mg 12 24 12 12 2.8.2 Aluminum Al 13 27 14 13 2.8.3 Silicon Si 14 28 14 14 2.8.4 Phosphorous P 15 31 16 15 2.8.5 Sulphur S 16 32 16 16 2.8.6 Chlorine Cl 17 35.5 18.5 17 2.8.7 Argon Ar 18 40 22 18 2.8.8 Potassium K 19 39 20 19 2.8.8.1 Calcium ...read more.

Conclusion

For example the elements Li, Na, K etc are in Group I. The group number tells how many electrons are in the outermost shell. For e.g. Mg is in Group II there it has 2 outermost electrons. Each row is called a period. The period number tells how many shells an atom of the element has. For example the element Si is in row 3, therefore it has 3 shells. The elements in group VIII are called the inert or noble gases. The element H (hydrogen) can be considered to be in either Group I or Group VII. This is why it is located in such a peculiar position. There are 2 types of isotopes * stable * unstable Unstable isotopes are radioactive, meaning they emit energy and particles from their nuclei until they become stable. This emission of energy and particles have several uses, some such uses are: * radiocarbon dating * agriculture * research and industry * providing energy * diagnosing and treating diseases Summary * an atom is the smallest part of an element that still possess the properties of that element * an atom contains protons, neutrons and electrons * an isotope is elements with different mass numbers * each shell can hold only a certain number of electrons: 1st - 2, 2nd - 8, 3rd - 18 * there are stable and unstable isotopes * unstable isotopes are very useful to Man ...read more.

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