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I am going to investigate the rate of reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid. I will look at the various factors affecting the reaction and select one variable to change, while the others keep constant in order to carry out a deta...

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Introduction

Investigating Rate of Reaction Aim I am going to investigate the rate of reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid. I will look at the various factors affecting the reaction and select one variable to change, while the others keep constant in order to carry out a detailed investigation. Formulae The formula for the chemical reaction is: CaCO3(s) + 2HCC(l) CaCl2 (aq) + H2O(l) + CO2 I can measure the rate of reaction between the two substances using this formula. Rate of Reaction = Change in Concentration Time Taken for Reaction A chemical reaction is the name given to a substance when it changes and becomes a completely new substance. It is difficult to reverse. It happens when particles make effective collisions with sufficient energy. Apparatus Spatula Conical Flask Burette Stand + Clamps Measuring Cylinder Safety Goggles Beaker Thermometer Stopwatch Kettle + water Small Funnel Delivery Tube + Bung I have chosen to use a measuring cylinder to make my experiment as accurate as I possibly can. I will be wearing the provided safety goggles at all times to protect my eyes, as hydrochloric acid is an irritant that may prove dangerous if it makes contact with the eyes. Theory The following theories will help me decide which variable I will change in my experiment to investigate the rate of reaction using calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid. Temperature - Collision Theory The diagram shows particles that are not moving quickly. This means that the chance of these particles colliding and causing a chemical reaction is rather low. The temperature is obviously low too, as the particles have little energy to move quickly. However, if heat were added, the particles would have more energy and move quicker and have a better chance of colliding. This diagram shows particles that are moving quickly. This means that chances of particles colliding and causing a chemical reaction are very high. This temperature is obviously quite high, as the particles have a lot of energy to move quickly. ...read more.

Middle

Any flaws that appear in the set up of the apparatus will become clear in the preliminaries, and I will be able to put these right for the main experiment. The first experiment I did was at 80�C, using 2g of powdered calcium carbonate and 25ml of 1 Molar acid. In this experiment, too much carbon dioxide was produced too quickly, and I was unable to obtain any results. This could have been for a number of reasons, such as the high temperature combined with too much powdered calcium carbonate. The next experiment was done at a much lower temperature of 25�C, this time with only 1.5g of powdered calcium carbonate and 25ml of 1 Molar acid. Again, I could obtain no results as too much gas was produced too quickly. As the temperature was lower this time, the problem must lie with the calcium carbonate or the acid, with maybe too much powder with a too large surface area reacting too quickly. For the experiment after this, I used 8.8g of calcium carbonate, but this time in the form of large chips instead of the powder, to create a smaller surface area and a slower rate of reaction so that I could obtain some results. Again, I used 25ml of 1 Molar acid. The results obtained from this experiment are on the next page. Preliminary Experiment 3 Time (seconds) Volume of CO produced (cm ) 0 18.4 15 25.4 30 33 45 39 60 44.4 75 - 90 - 105 - 120 - This experiment provided a definite improvement in results, as the rate of reaction slowed down enough for me to take down results, but it was still to fast, as the gas was all being produced within the 2 minutes. The next experiment I did was using 13.3g of large chips, which worked out as roughly 10 chips, at 25�C again. ...read more.

Conclusion

If I did the experiment again, I would only go as high as 70�C to prevent this happening again. Unfortunately, the experiments for 70�C and 60�C became slightly anomalous in themselves, as 60�C had a faster rate of reaction than 70�C. This was most probably an error on my part, perhaps timing that was too slow or a measurement that wasn't accurate for the 60�C or 70�C trials. The anomalous temperature, 60�C, has been highlighted in red on the first graph. Here, the line can be seen clearly overtaking the line for 70�C after 15 seconds, and the results on the 60�C are anomalous as a result. All the other lines on the graph, however, correspond with my prediction and back it up. As the temperature increases, so does the rate of reaction. If I were to repeat the experiment again, I would work under strict environment, such as in a closed room with no winds or temperature changes. I would also try and use more accurate ways of reading the temperature and keeping the temperature constant, such as by using a water bath. Doing this would possibly make my results even more accurate. I would also try and make my timing even stricter, possibly using a smaller time interval such as 10 seconds instead of 15, to get slightly more accurate results. I may also use a larger range of acids. I only tried the 1 molar acid, but if I were to repeat the experiment again, I would perhaps use 3 and 4 molar acids and test them under high temperatures. I would like to investigate in future the effect of catalysts and surface area on the rate of reaction, to be more conclusive on the subject and widen my knowledge. All in all, my experiment was a success. Everything went well, and I believe that the techniques and methods I used were accurate and sufficient enough to provide me with a sound set of conclusive results. Frances Duffy 11H1 Frances Duffy 11H1 Chemistry Coursework - Dr O'Donnell 1 ...read more.

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