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I will be conducting an investigation into the affect of calcium carbonate reacting with Hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

Amy Bowring Chemistry Coursework Introduction Carbonates react with strong acids to give off carbon dioxide and water. Marble is calcium carbonate and thus behaves in the same way: CaCO3 (s) + 2HCL (aq) ? CaCL2 (aq) + H2O (l) +CO2 (g) I will be conducting an investigation into the affect of calcium carbonate reacting with Hydrochloric acid. There are many different factors that can effect the rate of a reaction; some of these are as follows: Temperature - The higher the temperature the more energy each particle will have which means it will vibrate more, causing the amount of collisions to increase. If the particles collide more, the rate of reaction is increased. Concentration of Acid - The higher the concentration of acid, the more particles there are to react with. If for example the concentration of Hydrochloric acid is doubled then there are more Hydrochloric particles present and so there will be more chance of the particles colliding. Particle Size (surface area) - If one of the reactants is a solid then it can be broken down into smaller pieces or into a powder. This gives the reactant a larger surface area, meaning there is a larger surface to work on and so there is more chance of particles colliding. Activation Energy Needed - Reactions only happen if the particles collide with enough energy. ...read more.

Middle

Measure out 50 cm3 of HCL. Take 2 grams of the calcium carbonate chips from 1 group of mini, maxi or mega, and place them in the conical flask attached to the gas syringe. Poor the HCL into the conical flask. All the marble chips must be covered. As soon as the liquid is poured into the conical flask add the rubber to bung to stop the gas from escaping. The stopwatch must be started 3 seconds after the flask is bunged. This is because the reaction is not instantaneous and previous experiment proved that this time would mean the result would be more accurate. It was decided from a preliminary experiment that it was ideal to have two stopwatches running and two people running them. This allow the volume of gas to be measure more frequently and accurately. Measure the volume of Carbon dioxide every five seconds and record the results with units of cm3. Continue taking the readings every 5 seconds until the gas syringe has reached the end. Then continue to carry out the experiment for the different surface areas (i.e. mini, maxi and mega). Repeat the experiment so you have 4 sets of results for each of the three groups. Validity To ensure that my experiment is fair there are many aspects for me to consider. ...read more.

Conclusion

I believe my method was one of the most accurate ways to complete this investigation as reflected in my results, which are very consistent. However there are ways in which I would like to increase the accuracy of my method. For example, by having two timekeepers presented the problem of human error. There is a possibility that the stopwatches were started at different times. To overcome this only one person would start the two stopwatches at the same time until the second took over. You have to allow for a margin of human error during the experiment, some people react slower than others and you have to rely on the person taking the readings with the stopwatch. However, in the experiment I feel the results gathered were very reliable and could only have been made better by a more extensive experiment by perhaps repeating each experiment more than 4 times to get a more accurate average. Overall I am confident that my experiment was a success and the conclusions and the results are correct. If I repeated this experiment I would take more readings, check all the equipment before to ensure things like the gas syringe aren't stiff which could cause anomalies use one person to start the stopwatch before introducing the second person. There are many possible extensions to this experiment. I could try to use other carbonates and react them with hydrochloric acid. I could try different acids also and see what happens. All these could help me broaden my knowledge on reaction rates. ...read more.

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