• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Identify the blood types of four blood samples from the ABO group by comparison with four samples of which the blood types are known.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

HAEMATOLOGY II AIM : to identify the blood types of four blood samples from the ABO group by comparison with four samples of which the blood types are known. INTRODUCTION Numerous blood groups have been identified, for example ABO, Rhesus, Duffy and Lewis amongst others. Within a blood group there are different types depending on which antigen is present on the surface of erythrocytes. Antigen is a shortened name for antibody generator. An antigen is a glycolipid of which within the ABO system there are two types - A and B. A cell displaying the A antigen indicates a person of blood type A. Those with antigen B indicate blood type B. Some contain both antigens giving type AB and some have neither antigen - this would be blood type O. Isoantibodies, also called agglutinins, are contained within the plasma which will react with the antigens if blood types are mixed causing agglutination, clumping of the red cells, and haemolysis (rupture) of red blood cells. In an individual with blood type A anti-B antibodies are present, in blood type B anti-A antibodies are present and O type contains both A and B antibodies. AB types contain neither antibody. Antibodies to a particular blood type will not be present in the plasma of an individual of that blood type but there will in all likelihood be antibodies to antigens not present on the red blood cells. ...read more.

Middle

The terms universal donor and universal recipient are not strictly correct however as blood can contain both antigens and antibodies from other systems other than that which is under consideration. The rhesus group is of importance here . . . METHOD As per the schedule and instructions given during the practical. N.B. The slides were not checked under the microscope, as the reactions were visible to the naked eye as stated in the introduction. RESULTS Table 1 SAMPLE ANTI-A ANTI-B ANTI-A & B AB SERUM A + X + X B X + + X AB + + + X O X X X X Table 2 SAMPLE ANTI-A ANTI-B ANTI-A & B AB SERUM P1 + X + X P2 X + + X P3 + + + X P4 X X X X Key + indicates agglutination. X indicates no reaction. DISCUSSION From the results the following can be deduced : Sample P1 is blood type A as it reacts with anti-A serum and anti-A & B serum. The antigen A present in the sample would react with the anti-A antibodies present in both sera. Sample P2 is blood type B as it reacts with anti-B serum and anti-A & B serum. The antigen B present in the sample would react with the anti-B antibodies present in both sera. ...read more.

Conclusion

All originate in the bone marrow but T cells undergo modification in the thymus. They are non-phagocytic and instead perform their functions through the production of antibodies and memory cells. These last contribute to long - lasting immunity. 3. MONOCYTES These represent 3 - 8 % of all WBCs. Termed agranular they do in fact contain granules but as with lymphocytes they are small and stain poorly, however are important as these cells are phagocytic and require the chemicals contained within the granules to destroy invaders. Upon arrival at a site of infection they enlarge to become macrophages which have a limited capacity of matter ingested. 4. EOSINOPHILS These are granulocytes which contain large granules that stain red/orange in an acidic dye. They constitute 2 - 4 % of all WBCs. Their role is in combating allergic reactions releasing enzymes such as histaminase and they also act as phagocytes against parasites. 5. BASOPHILS Containing large granules which stain deep purple/blue in basic dyes these granulocytes comprise 0.5 - 1 % of all WBCs. Their function is in the secretion of histamine - important in the allergic response, and heparin which acts to prevent blood clotting and helps in the removal of fats from the bloodstream after a fat-rich meal. BIBIOGRAPHY .Fox, S. I. (1991). Human Physiology, 6th Edition. USA : Mcgraw/Hill. Hoffbrand A. V. & Pettit J. E., (1993). Essential Haematology. Blackwell Science ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Humans as Organisms section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Humans as Organisms essays

  1. Stem Cell Research

    A number of factors effect a person's beliefs on this issue, where possible bias can occur. These factors include age, religion, past experiences and upbringing. For some people, a blastocyst is simply a small collection of cells, which is non- living as it is incapable of sustaining life on its

  2. Diabetes Type 1 and 2

    Some people have to have to take two samples of blood and they may also be asked to fast which is to have nothing to eat or drink, other than water, from midnight before the blood test is performed. The first successful insulin preparations came from cows and then later pigs.

  1. human physiology

    front of the body * Extensor digitorum longus: this is situated at the top of the front of the leg * Tibialis: this is the muscle in the shin area, it spans the complete length of the tibia Muscular-Skeletal System Bones The main function for the skeletal system is to

  2. Investigating the density of blood

    For these reasons sample 2 will have a larger mass of red blood cells because the male participates in regular exercise. The blood will be denser with more red blood cells, however the increase in density will not be that dramatic as it takes along time to build up a larger quantity of red blood cells than normal.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work