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In this case study I will discuss the cases for and against the statement: The MMR vaccine could be linked to autism.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Should My Child have the MMR jab? Rubella in a young child Picsearch images www.robynsnest.com/images/rubella.jpg rubella image The measles virus Mumps Contents: Introduction ......................Page 1 What is MMR? ....................Page 1,2+3 How do vaccinations work...Page 4 What is Autism? ...................Page 4 Case for the argument .........Page 5 Case against the argument...Page 5+6 References...........................Page 7 INTRODUCTION In 1988 the MMR vaccine was introduced to replace the three separate vaccines for Measles, Mumps and Rubella. The MMR vaccine is one vaccine that protects children from all three. Instead of having three vaccines you would only have one vaccine that is for all three. Vaccines are given to children to protect them from particular diseases. A vaccine is a weakened version of the disease. The vaccination can be given by injection into an upper arm, thigh or buttock muscle. Once this is inside the body the antibodies can make the right antigen markers and therefore fight the foreign cells - the disease. Only mild symptoms may occur but will go in a few days. The Second time the person is exposed to the disease, the antibodies remember the cells so they can produce the correct antigen markers quicker than the first time when the vaccine was given. This means that in the first time only mild symptoms occur but the second time you are exposed your body can fight it before you get ill. ...read more.

Middle

There are some times e.g. in the 1970s that there was a bit more but that may be because some may not have chosen to vaccinate their child/children. Just before the 1980s the cases dropped to almost 0 and continued to stay like that until a few cases in the 1990s. After that it has stayed 0. How do vaccinations work? If you meet the real disease the antibodies are made very quickly. Small amount of the weakened virus is put into Your body through an injection. The antibodies make the cells clump together, the white white blood cells engulf the foreign cells. White blood cells recognise foreign cells and they make the right antibodies to stick to the foreign cells. The cells are destroyed before . They can make you ill. (3) What is Autism? Autism is a severe developmental disorder that begins at birth or within the first two-and-a-half years of life. Most autistic children are perfectly normal in appearance, but spend their time engaged in puzzling and disturbing behaviours which are markedly different from those of typical children. For many years autism was rare - occurring in just five children per 10,000 live births. However, since the early 1990's, the rate of autism has increased exponentially around the world with figures as high as 60 per 10,000. Boys outnumber girls four to one. ...read more.

Conclusion

jab to the development of autism. That research has since been discredited and two major studies have been published subsequently which also failed to show any link. Wakefield first suggested his ideas with two other scientists. This was then assessed by many other scientists then published in the Lancet. I think that this is a reliable source because the studies were assessed by scientists and I don't think that so many scientists could be wrong.(5) Two doses of the MMR vaccine gives 99% protection for the measles - the most serious of the three diseases. The Government-commissioned study (published in the Lancet in 1999) investigated claims that MMR was linked to autism and bowel disease. It concluded there was no link. Another study commissioned by the Department of Health and published in January this year also gave MMR the all-clear. This is also a reliable source as it is from a newspaper the Daily Mail. (6) The MMR vaccine is given to children in the UK when they are aged between 1 and 2 years, because of this, some parents will see signs of autism in the weeks and months before MMR is given, and others will notice them in the weeks and months after MMR is given. Parents who see changes in their child will often link the change to a specific event. Those parents whose children show signs of autism after MMR understandably often link the two events, but there is no evidence to show that there is cause and effect between MMR and autism. ...read more.

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3 star(s)

A clearly structured report, that outlines some of the evidence that has been proposed to link autism and the MMR and some of the evidence against. To improve:
1)Explain the biological basis of immunity correctly. Use the diagram included to help with this as it provides a clear outline of the process
2)Give some information about different types of vaccine and highlight the type(s)used in the MMR
3)Explain why Wakefield's study was discredited based on the number of children he included, and other design flaws such as biased sample selection
4)When evaluating the reliability of information sources, consider who is reporting the information. The most reliable sources will be original research, conducted by reputable and experienced scientists. Look at study design and sample size too. Newspapers report research findings second hand

Marked by teacher Kerry jackson 19/02/2012

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