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Investigate how increasing the concentration of the solution hydrochloric acid effects and alters the rate at which it reacts with marble chip, calcium carbonate.

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Introduction

Investigation Plan Aim Investigate how increasing the concentration of the solution hydrochloric acid effects and alters the rate at which it reacts with marble chip, calcium carbonate. Rate of reaction is affected by six main factors * Temperature * Surface area of a solid * Concentration of a solution * Pressure of a gas * By using catalysts * Using biological catalysts called Enzymes As outlined above the rate of a reaction increases when temperature increases, the concentration of dissolved reactants increases, the pressure of gases increases, solid reactants are in smaller pieces and of greater surface area and also if a catalyst is used. For this experiment I have been asked to pay particular attention to the factor CONCENTRATION, and the ways in which it affects the rate at which a reaction takes place. We can measure the rate of reaction by measuring the time at which the products of the reaction are produced or the reactants used up and there are a few different ways of doing this such as: By measuring gas volume Here the marble chips and dilute hydrochloric acid are put in a conical flask. This is connected to a gas syringe, which collects and measures the volume of gas formed. At regular time intervals a measurement is then taken of the volume of gas collected. Another way to measure the volume of gas produced is to displace water from a measuring cylinder as per diagram below. We can also measure the rate of reaction by measuring mass loss here when a gas is lost the mass decreases, which can be measured by placing the flask on a balance. The last way is to note how long it takes for a precipitate to form such as in the chemical reaction "the thiosulphate reaction". I conducted a preliminary experiment and from this determined that the most reliable and accurate way to measure the release of carbon dioxide gas would be by using a measuring cylinder to see the displacement of water and therefore determining how much carbon dioxide has been produced. ...read more.

Middle

Apparatus Conical Flask, Measuring cylinder, Stopwatch, Rubber tubing, Bung, Clamp and stand. Limits of Accuracy We have decided to measure the calcium carbonate to 2 decimal places on an electric scale, which is very accurate. Throughout the experiment we will try to be as accurate as possible and therefore we will measure time to the nearest second and hydrochloric acid to the nearest mm. I believe that measuring to closer than this might give us inaccurate results because we would not be able to take the measurement accurately enough. Method This method will be repeated for the 5 different concentrations. 1. Firstly set up apparatus as shown above. 2. Measure out the hydrochloric acid and water solution (200ml). 3. Weigh out 1.5g of Calcium Carbonate (marble chips). 4. Prepare a table to record your results. 5. Pour the Calcium carbonate into the conical flask. 6. Now also pour in your solution of hydrochloric acid and water. 7. Place the bung on top of the conical flask and start your stopwatch. 8. Every five seconds take a measurement of the water displaced by the carbon dioxide produced in the measuring cylinder. 9. Now repeat this for every different concentration. Table of Results Concentration of acid (mm) Time in seconds 100 80 60 40 20 5 15 12 9 6 5 10 24 19 16 11 9 15 36 28 21 16 13 20 41 34 28 21 19 25 49 43 32 29 24 30 53 45 37 34 28 35 59 47 42 37 32 40 62 51 46 40 35 45 64 53 48 42 37 50 70 55 49 43 37 55 72 56 51 43 40 60 73 58 51 45 41 Analysis It is obvious from my graph that there is a strong positive correlation and that with time the gradient decreases causing a gentle curve of best fit to be formed. ...read more.

Conclusion

This reaction would be a useful way of seeing how concentration affected rate of reaction. To extend my research on this experiment I could try to discover if there was a maximum temperature where all particles gain sufficient EA to react with HCl and so the times and rate of reaction would not change past this point. I could also see where there was a maximum concentration, where there was no more HCl particles left to react with the sodium carbonate and thus discover where the graph levels off. I could investigate how temperature affects the rate of reaction. I could use a temperature probe connected to a computer to record the temperatures. Also a thermostatically controlled water bath could be used so the temperature would remain at a constant. I could also work on the effect of surface area with mass remaining constant; this would show whether the rate of reaction follows a similar pattern when the surface area is increased to the pattern already found in my concentration experiment. What correlation if any could be found between results with surface area? This graph is a prediction Another research route could be to investigate catalysts and there effect on rate of reaction by reducing the activation energy required for the reaction to occur. The effect of pressure could also be researched is there a pattern between concentration and pressure because of particles being squashed into a smaller volume? If this is the case as the pressure increases so will the rate of reaction. To improve my experiment I could look at similar experiments that others have done in books or on the Internet. I could compare their results with mine and see how they have done their experiment differently to help me improve my method. I could also look at the different theories they have about their experiment to give me extra ideas on how to improve on how I have analysed my results. Other people's work could also give me more research routes, which could be explored. ...read more.

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