• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Investigate the effect of Activator concentration on the rate of reaction of fungal amylase

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Biology Practical Assignmnet [AS] Investigate the effect of Activator concentration on the rate of reaction of fungal amylase Aim Investigate the effect of Activator concentration (Calcium) on the rate of reaction of enzyme (fungal amylase) using Starch as a substrate. Introduction Enzymes are made of globular proteins and each enzyme molecule is of a particular complex shape complementary to the substrate, which it breaks. The shape of the enzyme and its active site is due to the specific folding of the polypeptides chain within it. Enzymes behave as biological catalyst. A biological catalyst is a substance that breaks down large molecule of food into smaller ones, so that they can be absorbed into the body's blood stream; however, they break down the substance without being used them selves, hence known also as a biological catalyst. They do so by binding themselves temporary to the substrate on their active site that lowers the amount of energy needed to spark a chemical reaction this energy is also known as the activation energy. Enzyme are subject to change by external stimuli, these stimuli may be chemical e.g. pH, enzyme Concentration and Substrate concentration or physical e.g. Heat or temperature. These stimuli can alter the overall time it takes for the break down of a molecule for a given substance this /time is otherwise known as the rate of reaction. Depending on the type of the stimuli, concentration, volume or the temperature which the enzyme is being subjected to the rate of reaction can be decreased, increased or not be effected at all. ...read more.

Middle

Therefore two simple investigation swill be conducted as follows * Determining suitable Buffer solution For this experiment only the buffer solution will be varied and all other factors will be kept constant in order to insure a fair test. Therefore for this experiment I will be using the following the following buffer solutions pH 2, pH 3, pH 4, pH 12. I will be following the same method as stated for the main experiment but the only difference will be that the Activator will be not be used and the ph will be varied. The results are shown on the result table in Implementation. * Determine Suitable Volumes of Enzyme and Substrate From the results obtained in the first pilot I will use the Buffer solution and conduct the experiment without using the Activator. I will be using the following volumes of Fungal Amylase 2cm3, 3cm3, 4cm3 respectfully and the following volumes of starch 1cm3, 2cm3 and 3cm3 respectfully. The results for the experiment are attached with the actual results. Substrate Volume Enzyme Volume Substrate Volume Enzyme Volume Substrate Volume Enzyme Volume 3cm3 3cm4 3cm2 3cm3 3cm1 3cm2 Apparatus * 4 boiling Test tubes * 4 (5ml) syringes * 4 50cm3 Beakers * Test tube holder * Stop clock * Test Tube Rack * China Graph pencil * 3 Stirrers * 2 Electrical Heaters * 2 100 cm2 Beakers * pH Meter at pH 4.5 * Distilled Water Method 1. The apparatus for the experiment will be set as shown above. 2. 2cm3 of Buffer solution was added to a test tube 3. ...read more.

Conclusion

to dry for a short while this resulted in the concentration being varied therefore NOT giving the expected result > Before using the solutions it is important to stir the solutions in order to allow equal mixing of the solute and the solvent. During the experiment I may not have stirred the solutions properly before use therefore I am getting the anomalies in my results. Further more the method of the experiment can be improved by using smaller volumes of the reactant as with these volumes the increase in the rate of reaction is quite significant but would be more suitable if smaller volumes of the reactant were used and greater volume of the Activator would be used (not in such quantities that the rate of reaction is very difficult to measure). Another means of improving the experiment would be to use a greater range of concentrations as this will allow more reliable results to be taken and the line of best fit will be more precise and accurate. The accuracy of the results can be increased by increasing the number of trials therefore enabling a more precise average to be taken, further reducing the chances of an anomaly. The investigation could be carried out by using chloride ions instead of calcium ions, this will enable us to conduct the experiment at lower temperatures and also allow us to find the effect of the activator more precisely as it will be easier to conduct the investigation because the Buffer solution required is pH7. Over all my investigation was fair and the desired results were produces, my prediction was right therefore showing an increase in the rate of reaction. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Patterns of Behaviour section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Patterns of Behaviour essays

  1. The effect of enzyme concentration on the rate of amylase and starch reaction.

    This extra energy is called the activation energy. Every chemical reaction has to overcome the activation energy in living organisms and allow the reactions to proceed at body temperature (37�c) The enzyme and substrate must fit together like a lock and a key.

  2. Activity of Diastase On Starch

    8.57 ml 0.117 A graph between the temperatures and the rate of hydrolysis of starch is shown below Below optimum up to optimum temperature: Like all enzymes, diastase catalyses a (bio)chemical reaction. A fundamental of chemical thermodynamics is that all reaction rates will increase as the temperature increases.

  1. Investigation into the Effect Concentration has on Rate of Reaction.

    Concentration I think that increased concentration will increase rate of reaction because a higher concentration means more acid particles in the same volume of liquid. The acid particles move randomly through the liquid, so more particles means more chance of particles colliding and reacting with particles on the surface of the marble.

  2. Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity

    and concentration of the enzyme solution (catalase solution). I think temperature would affect the rate of enzyme activity as all enzymes have an optimum temperature at which they work best, the reason for this is explained in the further theory section. This temperature is the temperature the enzyme was intended to work at.

  1. Investigation On The Enzyme Trypsin

    A Table showing the rate of reaction for trypsin digesting gelatin, the trypsin having been incubated for varying amounts of time. Incubation time (minutes) Reading 1(seconds) Reading 2(seconds) Reading 3(seconds) Reading 4(seconds) Reading 5(seconds) Average time for Trypsin to Rate (4 d.p.)

  2. Investigating the effect of enzyme concentration on the hydrolysis of starch with amylase.

    This is what happens in the experiment. Amylose is part of the composition of starch in which anhydroglucose units are attached by a-D-1,4 glucosdic bonds to form linear chains. There is a variation in level of amylose and its molecular weight between starch types.

  1. Enzymes - show how substrate concentration affects the rate of reaction for an enzyme ...

    Hence faster moving particles will collide more frequently and more products formed in a given time. However after 40�C the rate of reaction decreases. This is due to the fact that the hydrogen bonds which hold the enzyme 3-d structure are broken due to great heat energy provided hence the enzyme shape is distorted.

  2. THE EFFECT OF BILE SALT ON THE ACTION OF THE ENZYME LIPASE

    Consequently, the volume of lipase must be maintained, as it is the concentration of bile salt I am testing. To ensure my results show the affect of the concentration of bile I must assert that the amount of lipase is kept constant throughout, clarifying that lipase has not affected my results, thereby avoiding inaccurate and unreliable results.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work