• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Investigate the effect of Activator concentration on the rate of reaction of fungal amylase

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Biology Practical Assignmnet [AS] Investigate the effect of Activator concentration on the rate of reaction of fungal amylase Aim Investigate the effect of Activator concentration (Calcium) on the rate of reaction of enzyme (fungal amylase) using Starch as a substrate. Introduction Enzymes are made of globular proteins and each enzyme molecule is of a particular complex shape complementary to the substrate, which it breaks. The shape of the enzyme and its active site is due to the specific folding of the polypeptides chain within it. Enzymes behave as biological catalyst. A biological catalyst is a substance that breaks down large molecule of food into smaller ones, so that they can be absorbed into the body's blood stream; however, they break down the substance without being used them selves, hence known also as a biological catalyst. They do so by binding themselves temporary to the substrate on their active site that lowers the amount of energy needed to spark a chemical reaction this energy is also known as the activation energy. Enzyme are subject to change by external stimuli, these stimuli may be chemical e.g. pH, enzyme Concentration and Substrate concentration or physical e.g. Heat or temperature. These stimuli can alter the overall time it takes for the break down of a molecule for a given substance this /time is otherwise known as the rate of reaction. Depending on the type of the stimuli, concentration, volume or the temperature which the enzyme is being subjected to the rate of reaction can be decreased, increased or not be effected at all. ...read more.

Middle

Therefore two simple investigation swill be conducted as follows * Determining suitable Buffer solution For this experiment only the buffer solution will be varied and all other factors will be kept constant in order to insure a fair test. Therefore for this experiment I will be using the following the following buffer solutions pH 2, pH 3, pH 4, pH 12. I will be following the same method as stated for the main experiment but the only difference will be that the Activator will be not be used and the ph will be varied. The results are shown on the result table in Implementation. * Determine Suitable Volumes of Enzyme and Substrate From the results obtained in the first pilot I will use the Buffer solution and conduct the experiment without using the Activator. I will be using the following volumes of Fungal Amylase 2cm3, 3cm3, 4cm3 respectfully and the following volumes of starch 1cm3, 2cm3 and 3cm3 respectfully. The results for the experiment are attached with the actual results. Substrate Volume Enzyme Volume Substrate Volume Enzyme Volume Substrate Volume Enzyme Volume 3cm3 3cm4 3cm2 3cm3 3cm1 3cm2 Apparatus * 4 boiling Test tubes * 4 (5ml) syringes * 4 50cm3 Beakers * Test tube holder * Stop clock * Test Tube Rack * China Graph pencil * 3 Stirrers * 2 Electrical Heaters * 2 100 cm2 Beakers * pH Meter at pH 4.5 * Distilled Water Method 1. The apparatus for the experiment will be set as shown above. 2. 2cm3 of Buffer solution was added to a test tube 3. ...read more.

Conclusion

to dry for a short while this resulted in the concentration being varied therefore NOT giving the expected result > Before using the solutions it is important to stir the solutions in order to allow equal mixing of the solute and the solvent. During the experiment I may not have stirred the solutions properly before use therefore I am getting the anomalies in my results. Further more the method of the experiment can be improved by using smaller volumes of the reactant as with these volumes the increase in the rate of reaction is quite significant but would be more suitable if smaller volumes of the reactant were used and greater volume of the Activator would be used (not in such quantities that the rate of reaction is very difficult to measure). Another means of improving the experiment would be to use a greater range of concentrations as this will allow more reliable results to be taken and the line of best fit will be more precise and accurate. The accuracy of the results can be increased by increasing the number of trials therefore enabling a more precise average to be taken, further reducing the chances of an anomaly. The investigation could be carried out by using chloride ions instead of calcium ions, this will enable us to conduct the experiment at lower temperatures and also allow us to find the effect of the activator more precisely as it will be easier to conduct the investigation because the Buffer solution required is pH7. Over all my investigation was fair and the desired results were produces, my prediction was right therefore showing an increase in the rate of reaction. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Patterns of Behaviour section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Patterns of Behaviour essays

  1. Activity of Diastase On Starch

    With a typical amylase, therefore as you increase the temperature to the optimum, the rate at which an enzyme catalyses the breakdown of starch increases. The first reason for this is because you increase the rate at which the enzyme and the starch substrate collide (faster Brownian motion).

  2. The effect of enzyme concentration on the rate of amylase and starch reaction.

    This extra energy is called the activation energy. Every chemical reaction has to overcome the activation energy in living organisms and allow the reactions to proceed at body temperature (37�c) The enzyme and substrate must fit together like a lock and a key.

  1. Investigation into the Effect Concentration has on Rate of Reaction.

    Distilled Water I am using distilled water in order that it is neither acidic nor alkaline, and therefore does not affect the reaction. SAFETY This is an experiment involving acid, which can be highly dangerous if it comes in contact with skin or eyes.

  2. Investigation On The Enzyme Trypsin

    135 135 136 135 135.2 0.0074 19 136 138 137 139 141 138.2 0.0072 20 142 141 142 141 144 142 0.0070 Analysis/Conclusion It seems at first glance that my prediction graph (on page 4) is accurate, when compared to my graph of best fit (on page 7).

  1. Enzymes - show how substrate concentration affects the rate of reaction for an enzyme ...

    Therefore this slows the rate of reaction hence it lowers the amount of product produced in a given time. However competitor inhibitor is temporary as it binds to an active site for a period of time and then leaves it hence it is reversible.

  2. THE EFFECT OF BILE SALT ON THE ACTION OF THE ENZYME LIPASE

    The longer the time period the lower the pH becomes. It is therefore necessary to maintain a constant duration throughout all the experiments enabling me to obtain accurate and fair results. All results will be recorded for every second for five minutes.

  1. To investigate and compare the effect of temperature on the activity of catalase in ...

    time Ice Cubes Bunsen Burner To create different temperatures for different water baths. Tripod Gauze To place beaker on Beehive shell To make sure delivery tube does not slip out of place during the experiment, which would result in huge inaccuracies.

  2. Health Implications of eating Fat

    Replacement of partially hydrogenated fats with natural un-hydrogenated vegetable oils would prevent approximately 30,000 premature coronary deaths per year in the US, and epidemiologic evidence suggests this number is closer to 100,000 premature deaths annually. As quoted by the "Harvard School of public health".

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work