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Investigate the effect of Activator concentration on the rate of reaction of fungal amylase

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Introduction

Biology Practical Assignmnet [AS] Investigate the effect of Activator concentration on the rate of reaction of fungal amylase Aim Investigate the effect of Activator concentration (Calcium) on the rate of reaction of enzyme (fungal amylase) using Starch as a substrate. Introduction Enzymes are made of globular proteins and each enzyme molecule is of a particular complex shape complementary to the substrate, which it breaks. The shape of the enzyme and its active site is due to the specific folding of the polypeptides chain within it. Enzymes behave as biological catalyst. A biological catalyst is a substance that breaks down large molecule of food into smaller ones, so that they can be absorbed into the body's blood stream; however, they break down the substance without being used them selves, hence known also as a biological catalyst. They do so by binding themselves temporary to the substrate on their active site that lowers the amount of energy needed to spark a chemical reaction this energy is also known as the activation energy. Enzyme are subject to change by external stimuli, these stimuli may be chemical e.g. pH, enzyme Concentration and Substrate concentration or physical e.g. Heat or temperature. These stimuli can alter the overall time it takes for the break down of a molecule for a given substance this /time is otherwise known as the rate of reaction. Depending on the type of the stimuli, concentration, volume or the temperature which the enzyme is being subjected to the rate of reaction can be decreased, increased or not be effected at all. ...read more.

Middle

Therefore two simple investigation swill be conducted as follows * Determining suitable Buffer solution For this experiment only the buffer solution will be varied and all other factors will be kept constant in order to insure a fair test. Therefore for this experiment I will be using the following the following buffer solutions pH 2, pH 3, pH 4, pH 12. I will be following the same method as stated for the main experiment but the only difference will be that the Activator will be not be used and the ph will be varied. The results are shown on the result table in Implementation. * Determine Suitable Volumes of Enzyme and Substrate From the results obtained in the first pilot I will use the Buffer solution and conduct the experiment without using the Activator. I will be using the following volumes of Fungal Amylase 2cm3, 3cm3, 4cm3 respectfully and the following volumes of starch 1cm3, 2cm3 and 3cm3 respectfully. The results for the experiment are attached with the actual results. Substrate Volume Enzyme Volume Substrate Volume Enzyme Volume Substrate Volume Enzyme Volume 3cm3 3cm4 3cm2 3cm3 3cm1 3cm2 Apparatus * 4 boiling Test tubes * 4 (5ml) syringes * 4 50cm3 Beakers * Test tube holder * Stop clock * Test Tube Rack * China Graph pencil * 3 Stirrers * 2 Electrical Heaters * 2 100 cm2 Beakers * pH Meter at pH 4.5 * Distilled Water Method 1. The apparatus for the experiment will be set as shown above. 2. 2cm3 of Buffer solution was added to a test tube 3. ...read more.

Conclusion

to dry for a short while this resulted in the concentration being varied therefore NOT giving the expected result > Before using the solutions it is important to stir the solutions in order to allow equal mixing of the solute and the solvent. During the experiment I may not have stirred the solutions properly before use therefore I am getting the anomalies in my results. Further more the method of the experiment can be improved by using smaller volumes of the reactant as with these volumes the increase in the rate of reaction is quite significant but would be more suitable if smaller volumes of the reactant were used and greater volume of the Activator would be used (not in such quantities that the rate of reaction is very difficult to measure). Another means of improving the experiment would be to use a greater range of concentrations as this will allow more reliable results to be taken and the line of best fit will be more precise and accurate. The accuracy of the results can be increased by increasing the number of trials therefore enabling a more precise average to be taken, further reducing the chances of an anomaly. The investigation could be carried out by using chloride ions instead of calcium ions, this will enable us to conduct the experiment at lower temperatures and also allow us to find the effect of the activator more precisely as it will be easier to conduct the investigation because the Buffer solution required is pH7. Over all my investigation was fair and the desired results were produces, my prediction was right therefore showing an increase in the rate of reaction. ...read more.

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