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Investigate the effect of concentration on the rate of a reaction using the reaction between Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric acid as an example.

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Introduction

Rates of Reaction Donna Murray 10m2 Aim: To investigate the effect of concentration on the rate of a reaction using the reaction between Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric acid as an example. Background: A reaction will only occur where the particles of the reactants meet and combine. This is called the collision theory. That means that it stands to reason that to increase the rate of reaction it is necessary to cause more particles to collide harder and make it happen more often. Molecules must collide before they react. Before colliding molecules react, they must have energy equal to or greater than the activation energy for the reaction. It is possible, using the collision theory, to calculate the number of collisions occurring or second. The energy needed to start a chemical reaction is called activation energy. The rate of reaction is how fast the reaction is. An example of a reaction that is slow is that of the rusting of iron. A fast reaction is that of hydrogen and oxygen. When they react, they form water vapour. To investigate the effect of concentration on the rate of a reaction using the reaction between Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric Acid as an example. Changing the conditions could affect the rate of a reaction. There are lots of factors that affect the rate of a chemical reaction. ...read more.

Middle

* When both reactants are added together in a conical flask, place a beaker over the top. This prevents any gasses escaping that are produced. Diagram: Prediction: The rate of reaction is the rate of loss of a reactant or the rate of formation of a product during a chemical reaction. It is measured by dividing 1 by the time taken for the reaction to take place. There are five factors which affect the rate of a reaction, according to the collision theory of reacting particles: temperature, concentration (of solution), pressure (in gases), surface are (of solid reactants), and catalysts. I have chosen to investigate the effect concentration has on a reaction. I predict that the more dilute the Sodium Thiosulphate Solution becomes, the longer it will take to react and for the solution to become cloudy so the cross is no longer visible. And I predict that the results will show a pattern and the time taken will increase as the solution becomes more dilute. I think this because if you refer back to the collision theory you will see it says that before colliding molecules react, they must have an energy equal to or greater than the activation energy for the reaction. This means that the graph of results drawn up will have a positive correlation and will probably be curved as the increase in rate of reaction will not be exactly the same as the concentration is increased. ...read more.

Conclusion

I think I do have enough evidence to draw up a conclusion as I have done, because I recorded 3 sets of results along with an average result and a table for the rate of reaction, which uses the collision theory to calculate the number of collisions per second. I think the experiment worked well and the results backed up my prediction - the fact that the more dilute the solution, the longer it took to react. I think that to improve this experiment I should have used a light and sensor with a computer in place of the piece of paper with a cross on it. I would do this by placing a light under the flask, which would probably be held on a tripod, and a censor above the conical flask, which would be connected to the computer. This would recognize the light through the censor, and when the solution became cloudy, the light would be blocked, therefore causing the censor to detect this, and the computer will record the time taken. This would be extremely accurate. Another thing that I could use to improve this experiment is to use a burette to get a more accurate reading of the solutions, which could have varied the results. It would make measuring the solutions a lot more accurate and therefore the results may have varied. All in all I think this was a good experiment and the best that could have been done with the time and resources available. The results supported my predictions and they seem to be fairly reliable results. ...read more.

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