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Investigate the effect of concentration upon the rate of reaction.

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Introduction

Sodium Thiosulphate Coursework Planning Aim: To investigate the effect of concentration upon the rate of reaction. Reation=Sodium Thiosulphate + Hydrochloric Acid Na2S2O3 (aq) + 2HCl (aq) Sodium Chloride + Water + Sulphur Dioxide + Sulpher 2NaCl (aq) + H2O (l) + SO2 (g) + S(s) The experiment will be carried out varying the concentration. Both the sodium thiosulphate and the Hydrochloric acid are soluble in water, so the concentration of either can be changed. However I have chosen to vary the sodium thiosulphate as it is available in larger amounts, and various concentrations are prepared. I have also varied the amount of water in the solution in relation to the amount of sodium thiosulphate to help find reliable results. I decided which concentrations to use during my preliminary series of experiments 10cm3 of HCl (acid concentration will be fixed) 10-40g cm3 of sodium thiosulphate (all of these concentrations will be tested in turn going up in steps of 10g/dm3) 10-30g cm3 of H O will be used from the 30g of sodium thiosulphate onwards. I decided on using the following apparatus: 1 large beaker 1 small beaker 50cm measuring cylinders 4 conical flasks 1 stopwatch X board 1 pair of goggles Method: * Measure 40cm of NO of Na S O and place on conical flask sitting over as 'X.' ...read more.

Middle

All this can be understood better with full understanding of the collision theory itself. For a reaction to occur particles have to collide with each other. Only a small percent result in a reaction. This is due to the energy barrier to overcome. Only particles with enough energy to overcome the barrier will react after colliding. The minimum energy that a particle must have to overcome the barrier is called the activation energy, or Ea. The size of this activation energy is different for different reactions. If the frequency of collisions is increased the rate of reaction will increase. However the percent of successful collisions remains the same. An increase in the frequency of collisions can be achieved by increasing the concentration, pressure, or surface area. I have also researched on the effects of a catalyst to try and explain why this is occurring in the experiment. A catalyst works by providing an alternative reaction pathway that has lower activation energy. A catalyst does not alter the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. Because a catalyst provides a reaction route of lower activation energy, however, a greater proportion of particles will have energy greater than the activation energy. ...read more.

Conclusion

But overall our experiment went reasonably well and I think we have gained a decent set of results that are quite reliable. I think I can make a concrete conclusion from this experiment which is that as the concentration increases the rate of reaction will also increase. This has been proven by our results and it would be interesting to see what a further increase in concentration would have done to the results but I think it's safe to say that a further increase would have lead to an increase in the rate of reaction. The method we used wasn't by any means perfect but I think it gave us the ability to show what we needed to show and using a better method would have just cut down the anomalous results and further justified what our results have shown. If further lengths were taken in using higher concentrations I still think that the results would have still been the same and it would have added to the evidence that has already been given to me. I definitely think my own results are good enough to make a concrete conclusion and I think the experiment went reasonably well. Nathan Ranamagar 5S 5set3 Chemistry Mr. Tierney ...read more.

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