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Investigate the effect of varying the concentration of hydrochloric acid with the rate at which it reacts with calcium carbonate (limestone).

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Introduction

Aim To investigate the effect of varying the concentration of hydrochloric acid with the rate at which it reacts with calcium carbonate (limestone). Hypothesis The more concentrated the solution of the hydrochloric acid the faster the rate of reaction. Also the more dilute the concentration of hydrochloric acid the slower the rate of reaction. We can also predict that by doubling the concentration we can double the rate of reaction. e.g. 40 Rate of Reaction 20 Increasing Double 0 20 40 Volume of concentration % (not accurate) The above graph shows that is my hypothesis is correct what the graph showing the results will look like. The graph clearly shows that if the volume of concentration increases (or doubles) the rate of reaction will also increase (or double). Background knowledge The higher the concentration the faster the reaction is. In order for the limestone and hydrochloric to react: * They must collide with each other. * They must collide with energy. Dilate acid More Concentration HCL Particles HCI Particles Limestone Limestone Particles can only react if they collide with enough energy for the reaction to take place. This theory is called the Collision Theory. Increasing the temperature will cause the particles to collide more often with greater collision and move faster. Decreasing the temperature will do the opposite, move the particles slower. By obtaining research and evidence I will be able to prove in my Background knowledge how my hypothesis is correct. There are several factors which can affect the reaction rate: * Surface area * Adding a catalyst * Temperature * Concentration The reaction formula for the experiment is as follows: Calcium Hydrochloric Calcium Carbon Water Carbonate Acid Chloride Dioxide + + + Ca Co3 (s) 2 Hcl (aq) CaCl2 (aq) Co2 (g) H20 (1) In the reaction it is the Carbon Dioxide we shall be collecting and using to measure the rate of reaction. ...read more.

Middle

* The calcium carbonates chips will be weighed to approximately the same weight. * The different amounts of concentration will be pressured using a cylinder and placed in the beaker. * The calcium carbonate chips will be placed in the beaker. * The concentration solution will then be added to the test tube. * Immediately after that the rubber bung will be placed in the test tube and end of the delivery tube will be placed in the bowl inside the cylinder. * The amount of carbon dioxide released will be noted at different intervals of times. My Method Measuring Stop Watch Cylinder Hydrochloric Acid (HCL) Beaker Containing different Delivery concentration Tube Bung Test Tube holder Bowl Calcium Carbonate Water (CaC03) HCL H20 The equipment will be set up as shown above. There will be five different set of concentration. There will be two sets of results to ensure accuracy; an average will be worked out. The concentration solution should be added to the test tube containing the calcium chips. Immediately the bung will be placed in the test tube. As carbon dioxide is released, the water in the measuring cylinder should decrease. This process shall be carried out another four times using the different concentrations. The experiment will then be corned out again for a second set of results from there a table can be worked out to show the average. To achieve a good range of results, we had to choose an appropriate interval for time. To close, and the results will be too similar. Too wide and the results won't be accurate enough. Fair test To ensure the experiment was fair the following requirements were made: * The temperature of the solution should be kept constant. To avoid changes in temperature, the experiment was carried out away from the heaters. * The surface areas of calcium carbonate (limestone) chips were kept roughly the same size. ...read more.

Conclusion

My results seem really good enough because they show the basic principle I predicted (As shown on the quantities graph) can be shown through a certain extent in my results. My results may not be exactly correct; however they are enough to come to a conclusion too. Also, my quantities graph shown in my Hypothesis, shows that the line graphs is very similar to the graphs to my results. The collision theory backs up my results. Improvements If I were to do my investigation again, the following improvements would be made: * The use of a gas syringe would have ensured that the gas bring released was measured accurately. (although my method worked, a gas would have given extremely precise and reliable results) * To solve the problem of human error, I could have used colleges to help assist me with the experiment to ensure minimum error. * I could have noted down the temperature of the room to ensure it was in a controlled environment and so the temperature did not affect my results in any way. * My experiments were done during different days as there would not be enough time in one day. This may have affected my performance or the results. * Not all the equipments were used again for each experiment, due to the fact it had to be handed in and done on a different day and would have caused confusion. * Different type of equipment could have been used such as gas syringe instead of an upside down measuring cylinder. Extended investigation If I were to extend my investigation further, I would do the following: * Do both concentration and temperature - This is so the results won't be influenced by varying temperature due to natural surrounding, but controlled at precise temperature. Also to see if there is a relationship between the too. * Use a computer programmed suitable for reading results and come up with results and links to relationships. * Use a variety of different sized chips of calcium carbonate. * Use a wide range of results. ...read more.

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