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Investigate the factors that effect the rate of the reactions between magnesium and acid.

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Introduction

Investigate the factors that effect the rate of the reactions between magnesium and acid. Aim: To find out what factors effect the rate of reactions between magnesium and acid Introduction: During any chemical reaction the concentrations of the reactants decrease and the concentration of products increase with time. The rate of reaction (reaction velocity) may be defined as the rate of change of concentration of a stated reactant or product. The rate of a reaction is found by measuring the amount of a reactant used up per unit of time or the amount of a product produced per unit of time. A reaction can be made to go faster or slower by changing a number of factors. In order for a reaction to occur it is necessary that: particles must collide with each other and the collision must have enough energy. If this happens the original bonds are broken and new bonds are formed - so that new products are formed. Successful collisions (those with sufficient energy) can be increased (or decreased) by a number of factors. In this experiment the factor which I will be investigating is the concentration of hydrochloric acid which would be measured in molars. Key Variables: The factors which could affect my experiment are; 1. If the temperature were to increase the rate of the reaction would also increase. ...read more.

Middle

I will also start the concentration from 1.0 molar because anything below would not show much of a result. In the preliminary experiments I noticed that as the concentration is increased the rate of the reaction will also increase. I expect the same thing to happen in this experiment. Apparatus * Strip of magnesium * 20cm� of Hydrochloric acid * conical flask * trough * measuring cylinder * delivery tube * ruler * stopclock Method: 1. First of all I will collect all equipment and measure how concentrated the hydrochloric acid should be by first using 1.0 molars. 2. Then I shall put the Hydrochloric acid in the conical flask 3. I then will fill a trough with water and put the conical flask into it and then fill another trough with water and fill the measuring cylinder with water to the top and quickly put it into the water 4. Then I will put the delivery tube underneath the measuring cylinder 5. I will add the magnesium to the hydrochloric acid and straight away start the stop clock 6. I will do this experiment a number of times increasing the concentration of the hydrochloric acid by 0.2 molar. Safety: To ensure that the experiment will be safe I will wear goggles at all times when handling the experiment and be careful not to spill any hydrochloric acid or water. ...read more.

Conclusion

So 2cm would give the most reliable results. The variable which I investigated in this experiment was the concentration of the hydrochloric acid and I found out that as I increased the concentration of the hydrochloric acid the amount of gas produced increased and so the rate of the reaction increased. This is exactly what I had predicted and this is because of the collision theory. I controlled the temperature variable because I knew that after each experiment if I had not stopped the temperature from increasing the rate of the reaction would of increased because of this as well and so my results would have been unreliable. I controlled the temperature by placing the conical flask in cold water during the experiment so that no extra heat would be added to the results. Evaluation: I think that enough data was collected for definite results because the experiment was carried out with 5 different concentrations and done 3 times with each concentration. The results do support the collision theory so I think that they are good. I don't think any of the results do not fit the pattern because as the concentration increased the amount of gas produced in the first 10 seconds would also increase but in each concentration the amount of gas produced by 60 seconds was always around 20 grams. ...read more.

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