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Investigate the factors, which affect the rate of reaction between Calcium carbonate and Hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

Investigate the factors, which affect the rate of reaction between Calcium carbonate and Hydrochloric acid Background information In this investigation, which is about the different factors and their affects on the rate of reaction, we will be reacting calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid. The equation for this reaction is: Calcium Carbonate + Hydrochloric acid --> Calcium Chloride + Water + Carbon dioxide CaCO3 (s) + 2HCl (aq) --> CaCl2 (aq) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g) We will be using hydrochloric acid because it is a strong acid and is fully dissociated when put in water. Hydrochloric acid forms when hydrogen chloride gas is dissolved in water. HCl(g) + H2O(l) --> H+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) In weak acids there is only a partial dissociation occurs, that is only some of the molecules split up into ions CH3COOH (l) + H2O (l) ? CH3COO- (aq) + H+ (aq) Variables In any reaction there are several factors, which could cause the reaction to speed up or slow down. The variables that may have an affect on this experiment are: * Size of marble chip- the size of the marble chip will affect our experiment because this dictates the surface area. The larger the surface area the more calcium carbonate lattice is exposed to the Hydrogen and chloride ions in the acid therefore there will be more collisions more will be successful so the rate of the reaction will be faster. * Concentration of hydrochloric acid- this is the proportion of hydrochloric acid in the solution. ...read more.

Middle

* Wear safety goggles because we are dealing with bleach * Tuck stools in to make sure mo-one falls in the lab * Put all bags under the table to make sure no-one falls * Never run in the lab * Always stand up when carrying out experiments so we can move away if we are in any danger * Carefully fill burette by using the filter funnel We will be able to get precise results because we will be using accurate equipment like the burette, electronic balance that measures up to 2 decimal places and the digital stop clock that will also give us an accurate result. Strategy of Results Here is the table we will record our results on Volume of hydrochloric acid (cm3) Volume of Distilled water (cm3) Time taken for 100 cm3 of carbon dioxide gas to be produced (s) Concentration of hydrochloric acid (gdm-3) Rate of reaction (1/s) 1 2 Av 50 0 40 10 30 20 20 30 10 40 To calculate concentration of acid in the solution: The concentration of the acid can be found by finding the ratio of acid to total solution and multiplying by the concentration of the acid in the stock bottle. 50/50 x 2 = 2 40/50 x 2 = 1.6 30/50 x 2 = 1.2 20/50 x 2 = 0.8 10/50 x 2 = 0.4 I will plot a graph of concentration against average time taken to produce a 100 mls of carbon dioxide. I will work out the average by adding my two results together and dividing by two. ...read more.

Conclusion

The other anomaly was 2.0M, which was 0.071 but should really be 0.081. This shows that during the experiment there were some errors. The points however do not deviate too far of the line of best fit so the evidence is still reliable. To explain these anomalous results I will go back to my result table. When I compare my replication of the experiment I find that 0.4M and 2.0M are not identical this suggests there were errors in my method. Again the difference is not significant to affect the reliability of my evidence. These errors could come about through human errors for example: * Weighing out the marble chips and trying to get them the same size from one run to the next. * I used burettes to make up the dilutions so these should be accurate. This is an instantaneous reaction; once the marble chips inter the dilution of acid the reaction between the two starts instantly. This caused some problems because there was a delay sometimes to get the stopper on the conical flask and some gas could have escaped by then. Both reactions should be in the flask and kept separate e.g have the calcium carbonate in a test tube or a divided flask. If I was to repeat the experiment I think I might get more information if I traced the reaction to completion. I was only studying the first few minutes of the reaction. I could use a larger measuring cylinder inverted in water I could then trace the reaction with the amount of water displaced from the cylinder. In conclusion my results are reliable as they support my prediction at the start. 1 By Colm Killough 12B ...read more.

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