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Investigating a single factor that affects the rate of reaction between marble chips and hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

Investigating a single factor that affects the rate of reaction between marble chips and hydrochloric acid Aim - To investigate a single factor that affects the rate of reaction between marble chips and hydrochloric acid. Statement - Hypothesis and Background Information - I predict that the higher the concentration of the hydrochloric acid, the faster the rate of reaction will be. I predict this because, according to the collision theory the more particles that are present in a reaction the more succesful collisions are likely to occur. This means that the more succesful collisions that occur, the faster the rate of the reaction will be. Therefore when the concentration of hydrochloric acid is higher there will be more particles present. If there are more particles present, the more succesful collisions can occur and the faster the rate of reaction will be. The collision theory is that when a chemical reaction occurs the particles must collide to break their original bonds and form new ones. However they must have enough energy when they collide or their original bonds will not be broken and they will just bounce off each other. With enough energy the original bonds will break and new bonds will be formed - this is called a succesful collision. ...read more.

Middle

So if the surface area is smaller the reaction will take longer. Also we can see from this preliminary experiment that the larger the percentage of hydrochloric acid the longer time it takes for the gas syringe to fill up. Planning - Variables - There are a variety of different independent and dependent variables that we could use for this experience. The different independent variables I could chose from include: the size of the marble chips, ie. Surface area - this would affect the rate of reaction because the larger the surface area the larger number of particles are exposed. The larger number of particles exposed means the more particles are present to react, which means a higher number of succesful collisions which means the rate of reaction will be faster. Another independent variable that I could choose could be the temperature of the investigation. This would affect the rate of reaction because the temperature of a reaction is the measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles. Therefore, this means that the higher the temperature, the higher the average kinetic energy of the particles which means the higher number of succesful collisions can occur because of the energy of the particles. ...read more.

Conclusion

35 40 37 37 0.6216 50% (1.0 moldm��) 31 42 32 35 0.5833 40% (0.8 moldm��) 25 18 21 21 0.35 Graphs - Conclusion - From my results I can see that the higher the concentration of hydrochloric acid the faster the rate of reaction. I can see this because when the concentration of hydrochloric acid was at 40% the rate was 0.35, at 50% it was 0.5833, at 60% it was 0.6216, at 50% it was 0.9833 and at 100% it was 1.3. I can see from this that as the concentration is increased the rate of reaction increases with it. I can see from my graph that the concentration and the rate of reaction are nearly directly proportional because they increase together in nearly a straight line. This happens because of the collision theory. The collision theory states that when there are more particles present in a colution the more succesful collisions are likely to occur. Therefore, due to this the quicker the reaction will take place and therefore the faster the rate of the reaction will be. My results do match my hypothesis because in my hypothesis I predicted that the higher the concentration of the hydrochloric acid, the faster the rate of the reaction and that is what happened. Evaluation - ...read more.

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