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# Investigating heat loss from huddling penguins.

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Introduction

Sarah Smith Investigating heat loss from huddling penguins In my investigation, the one thing that I shall change by equal amount each time is the position of the test tube been assessed. (The position in a huddle) In my investigation, the thing I shall measure, will be the temperature. The make the investigation a fair test, here is a list of things that I'm going to keep the same: * Test tubes sizes * Amount of water in the test tubes * Time at which we start the clock * Starting time Apparatus - here is a list of everything I shall need to do my investigation: * Test tubes (penguins) * Hot water * Thermometer * Water heater * Stop watch * Beakers * Elastic band * Goggles * Kettle My prediction - what I think will happen: I think that the difference in position will affect the temperature. Therefore I think that the penguin positioned in the middle will have the greatest temperature all the way threw the experiment. Why I think this will happen: A penguin will lose heat in 3 different ways. One, by conduction - where heat moves threw a solid by the particles vibrating (creating the knock on effect). ...read more.

Middle

At the same time, I will measure the temperature of the water in the test tubes around the huddle and the test tube standing on its own. While doing this I will make sure that everything will be kept fair, to ensure a fair test. I will record the temperature results in a results table. I will repeat the above two minutes after for 10 minutes. I will repeat the whole experiment twice to ensure correct and accurate readings. To guarantee that I have accurate readings, I will try and get the starting temperature to be the same both times. I will then make a graph from the results. Results What I changed: What I measured: temperature Units: C (degrees) Number of test tubes Start 2mins 4mins 6mins 8mins 10mins Own 76 61 57 54 49 45 Middle 76 67 64 63 61 60 Edge 76 67 64 61 59 57 Own 76 60 58 50 50 49 Middle 76 71 69 67 61 59 Edge 76 70 68 65 60 47 Own 76 59 57 54 52 48 Middle 76 73 69 67 65 62 Edge 76 70 66 63 59 54 Average 1 76 60 57.3 52.6 50.3 47.3 Average 2 76 70.3 67.3 65.6 62.3 60.3 Average 3 ...read more.

Conclusion

I could have gotten more readings and done the experiment over a longer period of time. I also could of used cotton wool pushed in the top the test tube has it would of stopped heat escaping as quickly. The results I got were accurate enough to make a firm conclusion. The only pattern, in which I could see, was that the penguin stood on its own, lost the most heat and was the fastest to lose it. Improvements I would have changed the method to suit the experiment more, by doing the investigation over a longer period of time as this would make a clearer conclusion with more evidence. I would also get more people to read the results off the thermometer as one person can only read one result at a time and the time difference between reading each one; this could affect the overall conclusion and would be more accurate. I would have decreased the time taken in which I transferred the water from the water bath to the test tubes. And I would have used cotton wool at the top of the test tube so the heat couldn't have escaped. ...read more.

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