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Investigating rates of reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate and how heat/ temperature of the solution affects this rate.

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Introduction

* Investigating rates of reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate and how heat/ temperature of the solution affects this rate. * Background Knowledge: Reaction rates are explained by collision theory, this is because it states that the rate of reaction depends on how frequently and strong the reacting particles collide, in other words the particles have to collide to react and collide with strength. There are four ways that help speed up the rate of reaction using collision theory. These are temperature, concentration, size of particles (surface area) and catalysts. Temperature increases the rate of reaction because when the temperature increases the particles move quicker, this means the particles will have more collisions. Concentration increases the number of collisions as well. If the solution is more concentrated there are more particles of reactant between water molecules, which makes collisions between the other particles more likely. The size of solid particles creates a difference in reaction rates because if you break it into smaller pieces that it will have increased the surface area meaning that the particles around it in the solution will have more area so there will be more collisions. However this does not apply to this experiment as I am using liquids and no solids. A catalyst is the final method of increasing the rate of reaction, it works by providing a surface for the particles to stick to, where they can bump into each other. However all these only work and reactions only happen if the particles collide with enough energy. When the temperature is high there will be more particles colliding with enough energy to make the reaction take place. ...read more.

Middle

This affects it because the heat will give the particles kinetic energy before we start the experiment. * Equipment: 1-Sodium thiosulphate 8-Tripod 2-Gauze 9-2 measuring cylinders 3-2 test tubes 10-Bunsen burner 4-Beaker 11-Stopwatch 5-Heatproof bench mat 6-Thermometer 7-Hydrochloric acid * Safety: Throughout this experiment, I made sure that safety was one of my top priorities. I wore goggles at all times to protect my eyes; I wore a lab coat to prevent getting any chemicals on my clothing or me. I used a heatproof mat and tripod when using the Bunsen burner and took extreme caution when turning it on and off. I made sure my group and I were standing throughout the experiment so that if any substances or the Bunsen burner was knocked over we wouldn't get anything dangerous on us. * Preliminary test: Preliminary work is the work that is done beforehand for you to know that the values of chemicals and temperatures are all within an adequate range and are guaranteed to work. It helps by showing me whether the equipment has been set up correctly for when the actual experiment begins. For my preliminary work, I did the experiment but did not repeat it, as I only wanted to see that the values that I was to be using were accurate. This preliminary work helped me to plan my actual investigation better as I learnt from my mistakes. These were things like not starting the stop clock, quick enough, which changed the times of my results. Therefore, in the actual experiment I am going to be very careful starting the stop clock at the exact time the hydrochloric acid is added to again ensure fair and precise results. ...read more.

Conclusion

Perhaps doing the temperature even higher would enhance my results but this is also quite dangerous so I cannot really say that I could have improved the range of my results. Some other areas in the experiment that I feel I could have improved on were factors like controlling the stopwatch and measuring the amount of sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid. There is a lot of chance that human error would provide inaccuracies. However the inaccuracies due to them were negligible because I paid close attention to these during the experiment. I could have changed the apparatus I chose to use to get more accurate results for instance I could have used a digital thermometer as it is harder to get an extremely precise reading from a regular thermometer. I could have used an electronic water bath rather than a Bunsen burner and water bath as this way I could have gained really accurate results, as I would have been able to tell that the temperature of the water was constant to the degree so there would have been no affect on the results from this area. Overall, this investigation has been a very successful one. I feel my results and analysis have been as accurate and reliable as they could have been under the time allocated. However I feel with extra time, I could have repeated the experiment and made it even more accurate and adapted it to try other variables for example changing the concentration in addition to increasing the time, this would highlight any links between these tow factors. Also adding a catalyst could have speeded up the results so by using a catalyst in my experiment I could have compared the results produced when using a catalyst and when a catalyst is not present. These are the ways that I could expand the investigation. Lucy Gould 17th December 2001 ...read more.

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