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Investigating Reaction Rates

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Introduction

Year 11 Chemistry Coursework:- Investigating Reaction Rates I am investigating the reaction between an acid, and a substance. The acid is Hydrochloric acid, and the substance that will be reacting with it is Calcium Carbonate. Before I begin to explain what I will be investigating and why, I must explain how rates of reactions change, under different situations. Rates Of Reaction A higher concentration of acid in an experiment will increase the rate of reaction. This is because there are more particles of acid in a higher concentration, so the particles can collide more frequently with the Calcium Carbonate. There is an increased chance of the particles reacting, as more collisions occur. Therefore, if the concentration of acid is higher (there is more acid, and less water in the solution), there will be more collisions between the acid particles and the Calcium Carbonate particles, so therefore more reactions. Below are diagrams explaining this. The diagrams show how in a higher concentration, there are more potential collisions, therefore more reactions. As well as concentration affecting the rate of a reaction, there are other things that can affect it too. They are: 1. As temperature is increased, the kinetic energy of the particles in reactions increases. ...read more.

Middle

This is because more collisions will be taking placing due to there being more acid particles to collide with the Calcium Carbonate. * As the concentration of the solution gets lower/weaker, there will be less gas to collect, due to there being less collisions between the Calcium Carbonate and the acid particles. * The higher/stronger the concentration, the larger the rate of reaction will be, due to there being more reactive particles (in the form of the acid) to collide frequently and faster with the Calcium Carbonate. Therefore, I should get more Carbon Dioxide. * The lower/weaker the concentration, the smaller the rate of reaction will be, due to there being less reactive particles (in the form of the acid again) to collide frequently and faster with the Calcium Carbonate. Therefore, I should collect less Carbon Dioxide. The Experiment I did, carry out a trial experiment, in which I found that the 5g of Calcium Carbonate I was using was sufficient to gain good results. I did, however, find that the measuring cylinder that I was using to collect the gas had a too big a scale to measure the amount of gas on the lower concentrations. ...read more.

Conclusion

When the thirty seconds were up, the tube that delivered the gas to the upturned test tube, may have not been pulled out immediately, so more gas may have leaked through. These errors, are very small, so I don't think that I should be worrying about them that much. An improvement to my experiment could be that next time, I could use a gas syringe. We used a measuring cylinder to collect the CO2 for this experiment, and so we had to clamp it into place in the water. This could have led to a discrepancy, as the tube may have been slanted a bit, and therefore, the reading taken would have been slightly out. A gas syringe is more accurate, as the scale in smaller, and the friction is so little, that the smallest amount of gas can be read. We could also use different acids and compare that data with this data. Altogether, I feel that the experiments carried out were successful and that I fully exploited my task. My predictions were in line with my final results, and the tables and graphs show this. The trial experiment showed me the problems with my original plan, and the changes made were successful. From this, I can conclude that the experiment was a success. Oliver Rendell 11T - Mr Le Couteur 1 ...read more.

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