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Investigating the Chemistry of Group 1 and 2 Elements

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Investigating the Chemistry of Group 1 and 2 Elements Part 1: Chemistry of Group 2 Elements, Magnesium, Calcium, Strontium and Barium Reaction of the Elements with Water Results Table Metal Observation when metal is added to water Chemical Equation pH of Mixture Magnesium Very Lightly Effervescent Mg + 2H20 Mg(OH)2 + H2 9 Calcium Strongly Effervescent Ca + 2H20 Ca(OH)2 + H2 14 Barium Very Strongly Effervescent Ba + 2H20 Ba(OH)2 + H2 14 c) The reactions of the metals with water becomes gradually more vigorous as you move down Group 2, with magnesium being the least reactive element tested and barium the most reactive tested. It is also possible to see that the metal hydroxide produced when one of the Group 2 metals is added to water becomes more acidic as you move down Group 2 with magnesium hydroxide being the least acidic hydroxide produce and Barium Hydroxide the most acidic hydroxide produced. Thermal Stabilities of the Carbonates Results Table Metal Carbonate Chemical Equation Observation of Lime Water Rate at which gas is produced Magnesium Carbonate MgCO3 MgO + CO2 Heavy Precipitate forms before turning clear Very Quickly Calcium Carbonate CaCO3 CaO + CO2 Moderate Precipitate forms and remains Moderately Quickly Barium Carbonate BaCO3 BaO + CO2 Slight Precipitation forms and remains Slowly d) ...read more.


The strength of the reaction increases down Group 1 with Lithium being the least reactive of the Group 1 metals in water and Francium the most reactive in water. The reactions become so violent that sodium melts in the heat of the reaction, while Potassium becomes hot enough to ignite it with Caesium and Francium exploding on contact with water. All of the Group 1 elements react with water to produce a hydroxide and hydrogen. The general equation for the reaction of the Group 1 elements with water is 2M + 2H20 2MOH + H2 Where M is an element from Group 1 Reaction of Group 1 Oxides and Hydroxides with Water and Acids Reaction of Group 1 Oxides with Water and Acids In water the Group 1 Oxides react to form alkaline solutions, the general formula for this reaction is M2O + H20 2MOH Where M is an element from Group 1 In acid Group 1 Oxides react to form neutral salts this is because the Metal Oxides are alkaline, the general formula for the reaction of a Metal Oxide from Group 1 with Hydrochloric Acid where M is an element from Group 1 is M2O + 2HCl 2MCl + H2O Similarly the general formula ...read more.


In both Groups 1 and 2 the elements increase in size and relative molecular mass however these two factors must not be proportional to one another i.e. the mass of the atom must increase at a faster rate than its size for the density to keep increasing as you move down the group. However for elements such as Potassium and Calcium the above must not be true as they have lower densities than the elements before them as you move down their respective groups. Melting Points of Elements in Groups 1 and 2 Both Graphs G5 and G6 show a general pattern such that in Groups 1 and 2 as you move down the group the melting point of the elements decreases. This is due to the forces acting between the element's particles. To make a substance melt the forces acting between the particles or atoms within it must be overcome. The strength of the forces influence whether an element has a high or low melting point. Therefor it is possible to say that generally as you move down both Group 1 and Group 2 the forces between the atoms within the element become smaller. ...read more.

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