• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Investigating the Chemistry of Group 1 and 2 Elements

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Investigating the Chemistry of Group 1 and 2 Elements Part 1: Chemistry of Group 2 Elements, Magnesium, Calcium, Strontium and Barium Reaction of the Elements with Water Results Table Metal Observation when metal is added to water Chemical Equation pH of Mixture Magnesium Very Lightly Effervescent Mg + 2H20 Mg(OH)2 + H2 9 Calcium Strongly Effervescent Ca + 2H20 Ca(OH)2 + H2 14 Barium Very Strongly Effervescent Ba + 2H20 Ba(OH)2 + H2 14 c) The reactions of the metals with water becomes gradually more vigorous as you move down Group 2, with magnesium being the least reactive element tested and barium the most reactive tested. It is also possible to see that the metal hydroxide produced when one of the Group 2 metals is added to water becomes more acidic as you move down Group 2 with magnesium hydroxide being the least acidic hydroxide produce and Barium Hydroxide the most acidic hydroxide produced. Thermal Stabilities of the Carbonates Results Table Metal Carbonate Chemical Equation Observation of Lime Water Rate at which gas is produced Magnesium Carbonate MgCO3 MgO + CO2 Heavy Precipitate forms before turning clear Very Quickly Calcium Carbonate CaCO3 CaO + CO2 Moderate Precipitate forms and remains Moderately Quickly Barium Carbonate BaCO3 BaO + CO2 Slight Precipitation forms and remains Slowly d) ...read more.

Middle

The strength of the reaction increases down Group 1 with Lithium being the least reactive of the Group 1 metals in water and Francium the most reactive in water. The reactions become so violent that sodium melts in the heat of the reaction, while Potassium becomes hot enough to ignite it with Caesium and Francium exploding on contact with water. All of the Group 1 elements react with water to produce a hydroxide and hydrogen. The general equation for the reaction of the Group 1 elements with water is 2M + 2H20 2MOH + H2 Where M is an element from Group 1 Reaction of Group 1 Oxides and Hydroxides with Water and Acids Reaction of Group 1 Oxides with Water and Acids In water the Group 1 Oxides react to form alkaline solutions, the general formula for this reaction is M2O + H20 2MOH Where M is an element from Group 1 In acid Group 1 Oxides react to form neutral salts this is because the Metal Oxides are alkaline, the general formula for the reaction of a Metal Oxide from Group 1 with Hydrochloric Acid where M is an element from Group 1 is M2O + 2HCl 2MCl + H2O Similarly the general formula ...read more.

Conclusion

In both Groups 1 and 2 the elements increase in size and relative molecular mass however these two factors must not be proportional to one another i.e. the mass of the atom must increase at a faster rate than its size for the density to keep increasing as you move down the group. However for elements such as Potassium and Calcium the above must not be true as they have lower densities than the elements before them as you move down their respective groups. Melting Points of Elements in Groups 1 and 2 Both Graphs G5 and G6 show a general pattern such that in Groups 1 and 2 as you move down the group the melting point of the elements decreases. This is due to the forces acting between the element's particles. To make a substance melt the forces acting between the particles or atoms within it must be overcome. The strength of the forces influence whether an element has a high or low melting point. Therefor it is possible to say that generally as you move down both Group 1 and Group 2 the forces between the atoms within the element become smaller. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Aqueous Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Aqueous Chemistry essays

  1. To investigate the rate of reaction between different concentrations of hydrochloric acid with metal ...

    area; I have washed the granules in water to get rid of the powder and correcting it. (For powder, it does not matter as much, as they are roughly the same.) -Temperature-Will be conducted at room temperatures, the temperature of the room is the same because there is a thermostat

  2. DECOMPOSITON OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE WITH HEAVY METAL CATALYSTS

    Analysis: It can be seen that there is a pattern in the results and this pattern indicates that as the reaction starts more and more gas is produced but as it continues the reaction begins to slow down and not as much gas is produced as the volume of reactants is decreasing.

  1. An Experiment Into the Thermal Decomposition of Metal Carbonates

    more advantageous to work it out by determining how much gas that I want to produce. I have decided to make the volume of CO2 produced 100 cm3. 100/2400 = number of moles which is 0.004. This is the number of moles that will be needed for each carbonate.

  2. Analysing; Enthalpy of Decomposition of Sodium Hydrogencarbonate

    Of moles of solid used = 1167.81/0.042 = 27805 J/mol = 27.9 kJ/mol I decided to disregard the first experiment, because the results are not concordant, probably due to the factor that I used a different acid for both experiment 2 and 3, as the acid I used in experiment 1 was all used up.

  1. The group two elements consist of Beryllium, Magnesium, Calcium, Strontium, Barium and Radium

    Alloys of calcium with agent for Aluminium, Beryllium, Copper, Lead, and Magnesium have some useful properties toward construction areas. Calcium is known as a "getter" for residual gases in vacuum. Calcium from limestone is a component of Portland cement. Mixed with sand it hardens as mortar and plaster while taking up carbon dioxide from the air.

  2. An Essay on theComparison and Contrast between Group 1 and Group 2 Elements

    shown by this chemical formula Na2+Co3 Na2o+Co2 this equation is doesn't fit in because the compound didn't decompose, whereas the calcium carbonate lost the carbon dioxide this is shown in this reaction CaCo3 Cao+Co2 this formula equation is correct because the carbon dioxide was given off which is why we had to weigh the residue again after heating the substance.

  1. Investigating the kinetics involved in the reaction of metals with acids.

    Firstly there is hydrochloric acid. This is a corrosive substance, and therefore may cause burns, as well as it being an irritant to the respiratory system. However, as I am using less than 6.5 M, it should be labelled as an irritant.

  2. Determining the Solubility of Calcium Hydroxide.

    it can be read very accurately. This will enable me to obtain more reliable results and therefore to calculate a more reliable reading for the concentration of the sulphuric acid. For the same purpose I have used the volumetric flask as I can accurately make up a concentration of hydrochloric acid/ water solution.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work