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Investigating the effect of changing the concentration of acid on the rate of reaction of Magnesium and Hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

Investigating the effect of changing the concentration of acid on the rate of reaction of Magnesium and Hydrochloric acid. Aim - the investigation will test whether changing the concentration of Hydrochloric acid has an effect on the rate of reaction when it is added to a strip of Magnesium. Prediction - I predict that the rate of the reaction will increase as the concentration of the Hydrochloric acid is increased. I have made this prediction based on my knowledge of the collision theory. This theory states that when there is a higher concentration of something, there will be more particles of that object in the same area (see diagram below). Therefore the particles will have less space to move around, and increase the number of collisions. All the variables in the experiment all relate to the collision theory in some way In this experiment, there are many variables, but the concentration of acid is the only variable that we will change. All the other variables will be kept constant. The 3 variables that will be kept constant are the surface area, the temperature and the omission of any catalyst. The temperature must be kept constant, because any increase or decrease in the temperature will have an effect on the rate of the reaction. This is because, if the temperature is higher, (to a certain point) this will give more energy to the particles, making them move around faster, thus increasing the number of collisions. ...read more.

Middle

2HCl = MgCl� + H� In this experiment, you are measuring the amount of hydrogen collected at the top of the measuring cylinder. Safety - All pupils should wear goggles during the entire experiment. This is because Hydrochloric acid is a highly corrosive substance. This can cause skin irritation if spilt on skin. The hydrochloric acid should also be kept well away from any open wounds. Also, anyone handling the Hydrochloric acid should wear protective gloves in case of any spillage. Pilot study - A short pilot experiment was done in order to point out any flaws in the plan. The experiment was carried out for 3.30 minutes, with the results being taken every 30 seconds. For this experiment we used a concentration of 1Molar. The results are given below. TIME (seconds) Hydrogen Displaced (ml3) conc. = 1M 30 5 60 16 90 30 120 37 150 45 180 47 210 47 This pilot experiment caused me to make 2 changes to my original method. Firstly, I decided to cut the time of each experiment to 3 minutes, as I felt that this experiment showed that no more time was needed. However, this was again changed to accommodate experiments that took longer than the allotted time. Also, I decided to make the time between readings 20 seconds, as I felt that this would give us more accurate results and an improved graph. ...read more.

Conclusion

16 200 18 220 20 240 22 260 24 280 26 300 28 320 30 340 32 360 35 380 37 400 38 420 39 440 42 460 43 480 44 500 46 520 48 540 50 560 52 580 54 600 55 620 56 640 57 660 62 680 64 700 66 720 66 Time (Minutes) Hydrogen Displaced (ml3) Repeat 2 Repeat 2 20 1 40 2 60 4 80 6 100 9 120 9 140 12 160 13 180 15 200 19 220 21 240 23 260 25 280 26 300 27 320 31 340 32 360 35 380 38 400 39 420 43 440 44 460 46 480 46 500 48 520 51 540 52 560 53 580 54 600 55 620 56 640 58 660 62 680 63 700 65 720 66 Observations - During the experiment, I noticed many interesting things. Firstly, as the strip of Magnesium was dropped into the acid, bubbles appeared around the strip. Also, as the reaction continued to occur, the strip shrunk in size. Eventually, the Magnesium strip had completely disappeared. This could be because the Magnesium was displacing the Hydrogen in the acid solution. When the Magnesium strip had disappeared, I noticed that the acid solution had turned slightly cloudy and grey in colour. The reaction also seemed to give off a bad smell. Most importantly however, I noticed that during the experiment, the temperature rose a small amount, showing that during the experiment, heat was given off. ...read more.

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