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Investigating the effect of Concentration on the rate of reaction between Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid.

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Introduction

Investigating the effect of Concentration on the rate of reaction between Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid Plan Understanding Rate of Reaction In order to fully comprehend what will be happening in my experiment, I must explain what rates of reactions are, and what significance my experiment will have on them. A higher concentration will increase the rate of reaction. This is because there are more particles in the same volume than a weaker concentration, so the particles can collide more frequently, due to being closer together. There is an increased chance of the particles reacting, as more collisions occur. Thus, if calcium carbonate chips were placed into more highly reactive particles of HCl, the rate would increase, due to a large number of HCl particles colliding and reacting with the CaCO3 particles. The reaction rate will tell me how fast or slow my chemical reaction is. As well as concentration being able to affect the reaction rate, the following can: * Temperature - As temperature is increased, the kinetic energy of the particles increases, as they're being heated. When the particles vibrate and move faster, they collide more frequently, and more violently, than before. Thus, the reaction rate would increase. * Catalysts - Catalysts are substances that can speed up chemical reactions. However, it is important to note that the catalysts are not used up. The catalysts work by reducing the "activation energy" of a reaction (The amount of energy needed to start the reaction) so that the collisions are more frequent, and have enough energy in them to react. ...read more.

Middle

as we halve the concentration from 1M to 0.5M, the water level should drop around twice as slow. * The higher/stronger the concentration, the larger the rate of reaction will be, due to there being more reactive particles to collide frequently and faster with. Thus, CO2 will be produced faster and in greater quantities. Hence, the time for all the water to escape will be quicker. For instance, if we doubled the concentration from 1M to 2M, the reaction rate should also be doubled. * The lower/weaker the concentration, the smaller the rate of reaction will be, due to there being less reactive particles to collide frequently and faster with. Thus, CO2 will be produced slower and in lesser quantities. Hence, the time for all the water to escape will be slower. We could predict that, as we halve the concentration, the reaction rate will be halved. Trial Experiment Results Amount of Hydrochloric Acid (cm3) Amount of Distilled Water (cm3) Concentration of solution (M) Amount of Calcium Carbonate (g) Time Taken to fill with carbon dioxide (s) Rate of Reaction (cm3/s) 20 0 2 (5) (5) 1 (14) (25) 85 1.21 15 5 1.5 1 103s 0.49 10 10 1 1 108s 0.46 As we can see, we started with 5g of Calcium Carbonate, but the reaction times were very quick with the 2M solution. So, we changed the amount of CaCO3 used to 1g, which steadied the results. My results here match my predictions, in that the stronger the concentration, the faster the reaction went. ...read more.

Conclusion

I cannot fully tell which experiment was performed better - each has anomalies, and due to the differing curves on a graph, I cannot tell which is right. Thus, I would have to repeat the experiment a few more times before coming to a conclusion about the best set of results. An improvement to my experiment could be that next time, I could use a gas syringe. We used a measuring cylinder to collect the CO2 for this experiment, and so we had to clamp it into place in the water. Whilst this was a very good way of measuring, it posed a problem. The measuring cylinder may not have been at a totally vertical angle, and so a slanted reading may have appeared. To expel this problem, the gas syringe would have its plunger parallel to the main part, so a slant would not be a problem. If we were to further this experiment, we could react the CaCO3 chips with different acids, such as nitric or sulphuric acid. We could then compare those results with this investigation, and see what acid is the most effective in corroding CaCO3 chips. We know from the results that, as concentration of HCl solution increases, as does the rate of reaction. To see if this applies to most acids, we shall have to investigate them. I do feel, however, that my results complement my conclusions, and so for this reason, my results have to be partly reliable. I feel the accuracy we measured our results to be very good, and very successful. So if we were to repeat, I would alter parts of my method with the suggestions already stated. Paul Nicoll 11S (Group B) GCSE Chemistry Coursework Dr Riley ...read more.

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