• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Investigating the effect of Concentration on the rate of reaction between Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Investigating the effect of Concentration on the rate of reaction between Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid Plan Understanding Rate of Reaction In order to fully comprehend what will be happening in my experiment, I must explain what rates of reactions are, and what significance my experiment will have on them. A higher concentration will increase the rate of reaction. This is because there are more particles in the same volume than a weaker concentration, so the particles can collide more frequently, due to being closer together. There is an increased chance of the particles reacting, as more collisions occur. Thus, if calcium carbonate chips were placed into more highly reactive particles of HCl, the rate would increase, due to a large number of HCl particles colliding and reacting with the CaCO3 particles. The reaction rate will tell me how fast or slow my chemical reaction is. As well as concentration being able to affect the reaction rate, the following can: * Temperature - As temperature is increased, the kinetic energy of the particles increases, as they're being heated. When the particles vibrate and move faster, they collide more frequently, and more violently, than before. Thus, the reaction rate would increase. * Catalysts - Catalysts are substances that can speed up chemical reactions. However, it is important to note that the catalysts are not used up. The catalysts work by reducing the "activation energy" of a reaction (The amount of energy needed to start the reaction) so that the collisions are more frequent, and have enough energy in them to react. ...read more.

Middle

as we halve the concentration from 1M to 0.5M, the water level should drop around twice as slow. * The higher/stronger the concentration, the larger the rate of reaction will be, due to there being more reactive particles to collide frequently and faster with. Thus, CO2 will be produced faster and in greater quantities. Hence, the time for all the water to escape will be quicker. For instance, if we doubled the concentration from 1M to 2M, the reaction rate should also be doubled. * The lower/weaker the concentration, the smaller the rate of reaction will be, due to there being less reactive particles to collide frequently and faster with. Thus, CO2 will be produced slower and in lesser quantities. Hence, the time for all the water to escape will be slower. We could predict that, as we halve the concentration, the reaction rate will be halved. Trial Experiment Results Amount of Hydrochloric Acid (cm3) Amount of Distilled Water (cm3) Concentration of solution (M) Amount of Calcium Carbonate (g) Time Taken to fill with carbon dioxide (s) Rate of Reaction (cm3/s) 20 0 2 (5) (5) 1 (14) (25) 85 1.21 15 5 1.5 1 103s 0.49 10 10 1 1 108s 0.46 As we can see, we started with 5g of Calcium Carbonate, but the reaction times were very quick with the 2M solution. So, we changed the amount of CaCO3 used to 1g, which steadied the results. My results here match my predictions, in that the stronger the concentration, the faster the reaction went. ...read more.

Conclusion

I cannot fully tell which experiment was performed better - each has anomalies, and due to the differing curves on a graph, I cannot tell which is right. Thus, I would have to repeat the experiment a few more times before coming to a conclusion about the best set of results. An improvement to my experiment could be that next time, I could use a gas syringe. We used a measuring cylinder to collect the CO2 for this experiment, and so we had to clamp it into place in the water. Whilst this was a very good way of measuring, it posed a problem. The measuring cylinder may not have been at a totally vertical angle, and so a slanted reading may have appeared. To expel this problem, the gas syringe would have its plunger parallel to the main part, so a slant would not be a problem. If we were to further this experiment, we could react the CaCO3 chips with different acids, such as nitric or sulphuric acid. We could then compare those results with this investigation, and see what acid is the most effective in corroding CaCO3 chips. We know from the results that, as concentration of HCl solution increases, as does the rate of reaction. To see if this applies to most acids, we shall have to investigate them. I do feel, however, that my results complement my conclusions, and so for this reason, my results have to be partly reliable. I feel the accuracy we measured our results to be very good, and very successful. So if we were to repeat, I would alter parts of my method with the suggestions already stated. Paul Nicoll 11S (Group B) GCSE Chemistry Coursework Dr Riley ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Patterns of Behaviour section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Patterns of Behaviour essays

  1. Chemistry Cwk Rates of reaction: Investigating One Factor Which Affects How Fast Calcium Carbonate ...

    Like in the 2M experiment, there seems to be larger intervals between the carbon dioxide readings at the start and middle of the experiment compared to the end. For the final method, molarities of nitric acid to be used will be 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75 and 2.

  2. Free essay

    How does Concentration affect the rate of reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate

    Method 3 was not feasible as the scales we had available were not accurate enough for our experiment. Also, there was too little a change in mass to be able to draw a conclusion. Whilst the equipment we used did what was required, there was one key change in equipment which could have improved the accuracy of our results.

  1. Measuring the Rate of Reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Calcium Carbonate

    21 21 22 29 30 27 30 29 35 40 33 37 36 42 50 40 45 42 50 60 47 54 48 58 70 57 60 58 67 80 65 69 98 76 90 74 77 78 82 100 82 83 80 90 110 89 92 90 95 120

  2. Free essay

    Close Your Eyes

    He looked up and started walking towards the balcony. We walked through the glass doors which were held open by two other waiters who muttered 'good evening' as we passed through and were led to our table. It was placed right in the middle with candles and champagne already waiting.

  1. Investigation into the Effect Concentration has on Rate of Reaction.

    25 28 30 32.5 34.5 35 39 Reading 2 4 5 5 8.5 10 13 15 16.5 19 20 24 25 29.5 32 33 34 35.5 38.5 Average 4.25 5.5 6.25 9 10.5 13.25 15 16.75 19.25 20.75 23.75 25 28.75 31 32.75 34.25 35.25 38.75 Volume of Carbon Dioxide

  2. To investigate the effect of the concentration of nitric acid on the rate of ...

    CONVERSION TABLE Use this acid to water ratios to achieve the correct concentrations: For the 50cm� acid solution: Nitric acid (cm�) Water (cm�) Result (concentration achieved in moles) 50 0 2.0 40 10 1.6 30 20 1.2 20 30 0.8 10 40 0.4 SAFETY: * Goggles should be worn at

  1. How does the concentration of HCl affect the rate of reaction with CaCO3?

    We took the temperature of the solution left in the buckler flask after the experiment. We removed the bung when the experiment had been going for 1 minute. We noted down how much carbon dioxide was produced and washed out our buckler flask with distilled water after the experiment to get rid of contaminates.

  2. Investigating the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate

    a small mass and the reaction happened very quickly so to be able to improve my experiment I will have the chance to look at the reaction happen at a rate where I can see more changes and closely tell what is happening throughout the reaction.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work