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Investigating the effect of concentration on the rateof reaction between marble chips and Hydrochloric acid

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Investigating the effect of concentration on the rate of reaction between marble chips and Hydrochloric acid Section 1: Planning Introduction In this experiment I will be investigating the reaction between different concentrations of acid and marble chips. I will be measuring the speed and rate of which gas is given off. I know that the gas given off will be carbon dioxide and that the reaction will be as follows: Calcium Carbonate + Hydrochloric Acid --> Calcium Chloride + Water + Carbon Dioxide Or CaCO3 + 2HCl --> CaCl2 + H2O + CO2 On the left are the reactants. These are the chemicals that I will start off with. On the right are the products. These are what will be produced at the end of the experiment. Reactants and products are very rarely the same, as they react with one another to form other things. There will always be the same number of atoms in the products as there are in the reactants though, as none can be dragged in, or left out. Variables In this experiment I am going to change the concentration of Hydrochloric acid. I will use 2M Hydrochloric acid as 100% concentration. Here is a table to show all of the concentrations I am planning on using, and how much acid and water to put into the conical flask. It also states how strong the acid is in M. Concentration (%) Molar Hydrochloric acid (ml) Water (cm�) 100 2.0 20 0 90 1.8 18 2 80 1.6 16 4 70 1.4 14 6 60 1.2 12 8 50 1.0 10 10 I will then investigate the difference in speed of which the gas is given off, over a two minute period. I will take measurements every 10 seconds. Preliminary Work Before this experiment, I decided which size of marble chips to use from the sizes available. The different sizes of marbles chips had an average diameter of: large-1.5cm, medium-1cm, or small-0.5cm. ...read more.

Middle

In the 100% concentration test, where I used 2M Hydrochloric acid, the volume of gas had increased by about 6, 10 seconds after the last measurement. With the 90% concentration test, I have decided to ignore the first set of measurements because I feel that they are not accurate. Therefore I have remade the table as follows: A table of results for 100% concentration of hydrochloric acid, excluding the first repetetion Time (s) Repetition 2 (cm�) Repetition 3 (cm�) Average amount of gas measured (cm�) 0 0 0 0.00 10 3 7 5.00 20 7 9 8.00 30 10 12 11.00 40 15 17 16.00 50 18 21 19.50 60 21 25 23.00 70 25 29 27.00 80 28 34 31.00 90 31 38 34.50 100 34 42 38.00 110 38 45 41.50 120 41 49 45.00 I can see from this that the amount of gas measured goes up by about 4 cm� every 10 seconds. During the 80% test the gas produced increases by about 3cm� every 10 seconds. In the 70% concentration test the gas produced increases by about 4cm� every 10 seconds, this is strange because, logically it should increase by less than the 80% concentration test. By surveying the other results and the patterns that have emerged from them I would estimate that it should have increased by 2cm� every 10 seconds instead of by 4cm�. I think that this has happened because the marble chips were probably larger. This is explained in more detail under the section entitled "Anomalous Results" In the rest of the tests the rate that carbon dioxide is given off, seems to level off at about 3-4cm� every 10 seconds. Conclusion From this investigation I have learned that if an acid is concentrated it is more reactive. Being more reactive means that for instance, in this experiment, more carbon dioxide is produced and at a faster rate. ...read more.

Conclusion

Repetition Average Volume of gas Given off (cm�) Time (s) Repetition Average Volume of gas Given off (cm�) 1 2 3 1 2 3 0 0 0 0 0.00 0 0 0 0 0.00 10 4 3 7 4.67 10 4 5 5 4.67 20 8 7 7 7.33 20 7 8 7 7.33 30 10 10 10 10.00 30 10 13 11 11.33 40 13 14 13 13.33 40 13 18 16 15.67 50 17 16 17 16.67 50 16 23 20 19.67 60 18 21 20 19.67 60 20 28 23 23.67 70 23 25 23 23.67 70 23 33 26 27.33 80 25 29 27 27.00 80 26 38 30 31.33 90 28 33 30 30.33 90 29 40 36 35.00 100 30 36 34 33.33 100 31 45 40 38.67 110 32 40 37 36.33 110 34 52 44 43.33 120 35 45 40 40.00 120 39 55 47 47.00 60% Concentration 50% Concentration Time (s) Repetition Average Volume of gas Given off (cm�) Time (s) Repetition Average Volume of gas Given off (cm�) 1 2 3 1 2 3 0 0 0 0 0.00 0 0 0 0 0.00 10 6 3 6 5.00 10 3 3 3 3.00 20 8 7 7 7.33 20 5 5 5 6.00 30 11 9 8 9.33 30 8 7 8 7.67 40 16 12 12 13.33 40 10 8 9 9.00 50 20 16 15 17.00 50 13 11 10 11.33 60 25 18 20 21.00 60 16 13 13 14.00 70 28 22 23 24.33 70 20 15 15 16.67 80 33 25 26 28.00 80 22 18 17 19.00 90 36 28 30 31.33 90 25 20 20 21.67 100 40 32 32 34.67 100 27 23 22 24.00 110 43 36 36 38.33 110 30 25 25 26.67 120 46 38 40 41.33 120 34 27 27 29.33 ...read more.

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