• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9

Investigating the effect of concentration on the rateof reaction between marble chips and Hydrochloric acid

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Investigating the effect of concentration on the rate of reaction between marble chips and Hydrochloric acid Section 1: Planning Introduction In this experiment I will be investigating the reaction between different concentrations of acid and marble chips. I will be measuring the speed and rate of which gas is given off. I know that the gas given off will be carbon dioxide and that the reaction will be as follows: Calcium Carbonate + Hydrochloric Acid --> Calcium Chloride + Water + Carbon Dioxide Or CaCO3 + 2HCl --> CaCl2 + H2O + CO2 On the left are the reactants. These are the chemicals that I will start off with. On the right are the products. These are what will be produced at the end of the experiment. Reactants and products are very rarely the same, as they react with one another to form other things. There will always be the same number of atoms in the products as there are in the reactants though, as none can be dragged in, or left out. Variables In this experiment I am going to change the concentration of Hydrochloric acid. I will use 2M Hydrochloric acid as 100% concentration. Here is a table to show all of the concentrations I am planning on using, and how much acid and water to put into the conical flask. It also states how strong the acid is in M. Concentration (%) Molar Hydrochloric acid (ml) Water (cm�) 100 2.0 20 0 90 1.8 18 2 80 1.6 16 4 70 1.4 14 6 60 1.2 12 8 50 1.0 10 10 I will then investigate the difference in speed of which the gas is given off, over a two minute period. I will take measurements every 10 seconds. Preliminary Work Before this experiment, I decided which size of marble chips to use from the sizes available. The different sizes of marbles chips had an average diameter of: large-1.5cm, medium-1cm, or small-0.5cm. ...read more.

Middle

In the 100% concentration test, where I used 2M Hydrochloric acid, the volume of gas had increased by about 6, 10 seconds after the last measurement. With the 90% concentration test, I have decided to ignore the first set of measurements because I feel that they are not accurate. Therefore I have remade the table as follows: A table of results for 100% concentration of hydrochloric acid, excluding the first repetetion Time (s) Repetition 2 (cm�) Repetition 3 (cm�) Average amount of gas measured (cm�) 0 0 0 0.00 10 3 7 5.00 20 7 9 8.00 30 10 12 11.00 40 15 17 16.00 50 18 21 19.50 60 21 25 23.00 70 25 29 27.00 80 28 34 31.00 90 31 38 34.50 100 34 42 38.00 110 38 45 41.50 120 41 49 45.00 I can see from this that the amount of gas measured goes up by about 4 cm� every 10 seconds. During the 80% test the gas produced increases by about 3cm� every 10 seconds. In the 70% concentration test the gas produced increases by about 4cm� every 10 seconds, this is strange because, logically it should increase by less than the 80% concentration test. By surveying the other results and the patterns that have emerged from them I would estimate that it should have increased by 2cm� every 10 seconds instead of by 4cm�. I think that this has happened because the marble chips were probably larger. This is explained in more detail under the section entitled "Anomalous Results" In the rest of the tests the rate that carbon dioxide is given off, seems to level off at about 3-4cm� every 10 seconds. Conclusion From this investigation I have learned that if an acid is concentrated it is more reactive. Being more reactive means that for instance, in this experiment, more carbon dioxide is produced and at a faster rate. ...read more.

Conclusion

Repetition Average Volume of gas Given off (cm�) Time (s) Repetition Average Volume of gas Given off (cm�) 1 2 3 1 2 3 0 0 0 0 0.00 0 0 0 0 0.00 10 4 3 7 4.67 10 4 5 5 4.67 20 8 7 7 7.33 20 7 8 7 7.33 30 10 10 10 10.00 30 10 13 11 11.33 40 13 14 13 13.33 40 13 18 16 15.67 50 17 16 17 16.67 50 16 23 20 19.67 60 18 21 20 19.67 60 20 28 23 23.67 70 23 25 23 23.67 70 23 33 26 27.33 80 25 29 27 27.00 80 26 38 30 31.33 90 28 33 30 30.33 90 29 40 36 35.00 100 30 36 34 33.33 100 31 45 40 38.67 110 32 40 37 36.33 110 34 52 44 43.33 120 35 45 40 40.00 120 39 55 47 47.00 60% Concentration 50% Concentration Time (s) Repetition Average Volume of gas Given off (cm�) Time (s) Repetition Average Volume of gas Given off (cm�) 1 2 3 1 2 3 0 0 0 0 0.00 0 0 0 0 0.00 10 6 3 6 5.00 10 3 3 3 3.00 20 8 7 7 7.33 20 5 5 5 6.00 30 11 9 8 9.33 30 8 7 8 7.67 40 16 12 12 13.33 40 10 8 9 9.00 50 20 16 15 17.00 50 13 11 10 11.33 60 25 18 20 21.00 60 16 13 13 14.00 70 28 22 23 24.33 70 20 15 15 16.67 80 33 25 26 28.00 80 22 18 17 19.00 90 36 28 30 31.33 90 25 20 20 21.67 100 40 32 32 34.67 100 27 23 22 24.00 110 43 36 36 38.33 110 30 25 25 26.67 120 46 38 40 41.33 120 34 27 27 29.33 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Aqueous Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Aqueous Chemistry essays

  1. To investigate the rate of reaction between different concentrations of hydrochloric acid with metal ...

    at every 10 seconds as this is a suitable time interval for finding a measurable change to take place. I shall do the experiment as thus: 1. I will make sure the stools are tucked in and my bags are away, I will need a pair of goggles and an apron.

  2. The effect of Acid Rain on Seed Germination.

    My measurements could have been less than the cress roots actually were which would have resulted in my final reading for this concentration to be less than I should be. I am confident in my conclusions because I believe my experiment was carried out as accurately as possible with the apparatus I was given.

  1. How much Iron (II) in 100 grams of Spinach Oleracea?

    (aq) react with 5 moles of Iron (II), and by using the equation below it is possible to work out how much Iron (II) is present in the spinach extract solution and then use this to work out how much Iron (II)

  2. To investigate the effect of concentration on the temperature rise, heat evolved and heat ...

    I can clearly see that my investigational volume of alkali is less than what I calculated according to the logical theory. Analyzing the relationship between concentration and temperature change Each experiment I did twice to improve my accuracy on the results.

  1. Investigating the effect of the size of marble chips on the rate of reaction ...

    Pour in the 25ml of hydrochloric acid, and after the last drop, start the stopwatch.

  2. Investigate how the concentration of 10 ml of hydrochloric acid affects the rate of ...

    1 2 3 2.91 1 20.5 37.5 49 3.00 0.9 17.5 32 40 3.00 0.8 15 23.5 31 2.99 0.7 6.5 15 19 3.20 0.6 3 9.5 16 2.97 0.5 5.5 12.5 18.5 3.00 0.4 5 12.5 18.5 3.03 0.3 3 9.5 15 2.98 0.2 2 7 12 3.03 0.1

  1. A Investigation into the Rate of Chemical Weathering of Marble

    I will carry out the experiment for each concentration and also repeat it to gain more results for a more precise conclusion. Obtaining These are the results that I obtained during my actual experiments. In bold the average of the two experiments is shown.

  2. The Rates of Reaction of Metals with Acid.

    Repeat stages 2 to 10 but instead of 35�C change the water bath to 40�C. 13) Repeat stages 2 to 9 using 45, 50, 55, 60�C Conical flasks and cotton wool used to stop fizzing from reducing the conc. of the acid.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work